A bearing alloy originally patented by Isaac Babbitt, composed of 50 parts tin, five antimony, and one copper. Addition of lead greatly extends range of service. Composition varies widely, with tin 5-90%, copper 1.5-6%, antimony 7-10%, lead 5-48.5%.
Colloquial term for a co-signer or co-buyer on an automobile purchase contract.
Babcock and Wilcox boiler
A water-tube boiler consisting in its simplest form of a horizontal drum from which is suspended a pair of headers carrying between them an inclined bank of straight tubes.
The vapor pressure of a liquid is lowered when a non-volatile substance is dissolved in it, by an amount proportional to the concentration of the solution.
A small incandescent spotlight used in film and television production.
A specially designed seating device (which is not generally standard equipment) to hold safely very young children (usually under the weight of 10 kilograms).
A method of cutting a tile or brick by chipping away the biscuit below the glazed face, the front itself being scribed.
The EMF which arises in an inductance (because of rate of change of current), in an electric motor (because of flux cutting) or in a primary cell (because of polarization), or in a secondary cell (when being charged). Also called counter EMF
Cells connected into an electric circuit in such a way that their emf opposes the flow of current in the circuit.
Emission of electrons from the anode.
When the dealer sends a vehicle purchase contract to the bank for financing, the dealer is given an extra bonus (the back end) from the bank for choosing this bank.
Materials used to replace previously excavated material.
Passage of unburned fuel mixture into the exhaust system where it is ignited and causes an explosion (backfire) prematurely.
The distance between the rear surface of a lens and the image of an object at infinity.
A speed-reducing gear fitted to the headstock of a belt-driven metal-turning lathe. It consists of a simple layshaft, which may be brought into gear with the coned pulley and mandrel when required.
Extraneous signals arising from any cause which might be confused with the required measurements, e.g., in electrical measurements of nuclear phenomena and of radioactivity, it would include counts emanating from amplifier noise, cosmic rays and insulator leakage.
A task having a low priority within a multiprogramming system.
Extraneous noise contaminating sound measurements and which cannot be separated from wanted signals. For example residual output from microphones, pickups, lines giving a signal-to-noise ratio. Also called ground noise
Radiation coming from sources other than that being observed.
(BGV) A technique for overlaying video on previously recorded depth multiplex audio. Also called video on sound (VOS).
Welding in the direction opposite to the direction that the gas flame is pointing. Also called backward welding.
After an outbound shipment has been delivered, the truck will return empty. In order to generate more revenue, the dispatcher may find a shipment for the return which is the back haul.
Movement in the direction of lighter traffic flow when traffic generally is heavier in the opposite direction.
To move a shipment back over part of a route already traveled.
Excess heating of a cathode due to bombardment by high-energy electrons returning to the cathode. In magnetrons, it may be sufficient to keep the cathode at operating temperature without external heating.
Some material placed on the root side of a weld to aid control of penetration.
Light-absorbent layer on the rear surface of photographic film or plate to reduce unwanted exposure
A meterological term describing the changing of a wind in a counter-clockwise direction.
Backing a letterpress printing plate to required height.
The violent reversal of an internal-combustion engine during starting due to a Backfire
The amount of play or clearance between two parts. In the case of gears, it refers to how much one gear can be moved back and forth without moving the gear into which it is meshed.
Mechanical deficiency in a tuning control, with a difference in dial reading between clockwise and counterclockwise rotation.
Property of most regenerative and oscillator circuits, by which oscillation is maintained with a smaller positive feedback than is required for inception.
Movement (if any) of the chain along the pitch line of the sprocket when the direction of chain travel is reversed.
The rear window of a vehicle. Most people call it a rear window and erroneously think of backlight as the taillight.
The light source (often a cold cathode discharge in a flat fluorescent envelope) used in some light-modulating flat panel displays such as those based on LCD
(BLC) The opening of the iris to correctly expose a backlit subject which would otherwise be a silhouette
Backlight defogging system
Heated rear window
Heated rear window
Lighting illuminating the subject from behind, opposite the camera, often to provide rim light or halo effects.
Lobe of polar diagram for antenna, microphone, etc. which points in the reverse direction to that required.
Holding a signal lever partially restored until completion of a predetermined sequence of operation.
The items which follow the main text of a book, i.e., appendices, notes, glossary, bibliography, index. The UK term is end matter
An observation made with instrument on station just left. Also called back sight
The panel of the body shell set underneath the trunk lid. It is sometimes referred to as the rear valance if the area below the trunk lid consists of only a single panel that extends down to the bottom of the body; in many designs, however, the rear valance is a separate horizontal panel that extends from the rear bumper area downward. The British term is rear panel
The prolonging of the collector current in a transistor for a brief time after the input signal (particularly if large) has decreased to zero.
The resistance to the flow of exhaust gases through the exhaust system. By rerouting the exhaust gases for noise suppression, a muffler causes back pressure, but a straight pipe alone causes only minimal back pressure. Some engines require back pressure, so that removing the exhaust system will cause internal damage.
Pressure in low side of refrigerating systems; also called suction pressure or low-side pressure.
The pressure opposing the motion of the piston of an engine on its exhaust stroke.
The exhaust pressure of a turbine. Increased by clogged or defective exhaust system.
Pressure against which a fluid or gas is flowing, resulting from friction in lines, restrictions in pipes, valves, pressure in vessel to which fluid is flowing, hydrostatic head, or other impediment that causes resistance to fluid flow.
(BVT) a system combining a ported EGR valve and a backpressure variable Transducer to control emissions of NOx
Projection of a picture, from film, transparency, or video, on to a translucent screen to be viewed from the opposite side,
A form of motion picture composite photography in which the projected picture forms the background to action taking place in front of it, both being photographed together.
In a lathe tool, the inclination of the top surface or face to a plane parallel to the base of the tool.
The back (upright) part of the seat against which your back reclines.
The deflection of radiation or particles by scattering through angles greater than 90° with reference to the original direction of travel.
An air conditioning term which means to rotate a service valve counterclockwise all the way down until the valve is back-seated. When referring to a stem type service valve, the term has a more specific meaning-in the back-seated position, the valve outlet to the system is open and the service port in the valve is closed (its normal operating position).
The seating behind the front passenger and/or driver
A person who is not physically in control of the vehicle, but who gives driving instruction to the driver, usually in an obnoxious manner.
Fluid opening or closing such as a gauge opening to seat the joint where the valve stem goes through the valve body.
Process which maintains synchronization when video recording is stopped and started. The tape being rolled back for roughly one second at the end of a recorded segment then switched into play to compare and synchronize the control track pulses with the incoming synchronization pulses before recording begins again.
Welding small sections of a joint in a direction opposite the direction that the weld as a whole is progressing.
The structure of a relay which limits the travel of the armature away from the pole-piece or core.
Parallel connection of valves, with the anode of one connected to the cathode of the other, or transistors in parallel in opposite directions, to allow control of AC current without rectification.
To go in reverse.
Back up alarm
An annoying loud beeping which is repeatedly sounded when a vehicle (usually a large truck) is placed in reverse. It is designed to warn pedestrians behind the vehicle. The British term is reversing warning signal
Back up light
A white light which is located at the rear of the vehicle and is illuminated when the transmission is placed in reverse. The British term is reversing light
Voltage which opposes the current when the current in an inductive circuit changes and the magnetic field cuts the conductors.
Movement of the brushes of a commutating machine around the commutator, from the neutral position, and in a direction opposite to that of the rotation of the commutator, so that the brushes short-circuit zero emf conductors when the load current, through armature reaction, results in a rotation of the neutral axis of the air-gap flux. Shifting the brushes in this way reduces sparking on the commutator. Also called backward lead
Signaling from the called to the calling end of a circuit.
General term for a family of microwave traveling-wave tubes in which energy on a slow-wave circuit or structure, linked closely to the electron beam, flows in the opposite direction to the electrons. They can be used as stable, low-noise amplifiers or as oscillators, as the latter, they can be easily tuned over a wide frequency range by altering he beam voltage.
Water, containing fine fibers, loading and other additives, removed in the forming section of a paper or board-making machine. It is generally re-used within the system or clarified in a saveall to recover suspended matter.
A person, whether qualified or not, who repairs his own vehicle or those of others and works in his own property.
Abbreviation for Blood Alcohol Content level
An emblem with a manufacturer’s name and/or logo on a plate to identify a model or component.
When a manufacturer sells two identical vehicles but the model names are different, he is badge engineering. For example, General Motors may sell a vehicle as a Chevrolet or a Pontiac where the only difference is the model name, logo, and more or less chrome or other minor alterations.
A location where your supplies have been cached. In randonneuring events of 1200 km, you can pre-arrange to have a bag of extra clothes and other supplies waiting for you at a prescribed control (i.e., checkpoint). Also called a drop.
A motorcycle equipped with saddlebags and other touring amenities.
Chevrolet made a bagger in 1964 that is very stylish.
Use of a flexible membrane (the bag) to exert pressure, usually about one atmosphere, on a thermosetting composite laminate or sandwich component while it is curing at ambient temperature in an open mold. Pressure can be generated either by evacuating the inside of the bag (vacuum bag molding) or by pressurizing its outer surface (pressure bag molding).
A form of bellows pump, in which the valved disk taking the place of the bucket is connected to the base of the barrel by an elastic bag, distended at intervals by rings.
The spring-wire loop used to secure the cover on most Master cylinder reservoirs.
A temporary bridge made by assembling portable prefabricated panels. A nose is projected over rollers across the stream, being followed by the bridge proper, with roadway. Also used over pontoons.
An electric-resistance furnace in which the resistance material is crushed coke placed between carbon electrodes; used for heating ingots and bars in rolling mills, for annealing, etc.
A microstructural product formed in steels when cooled from the austenite state at rates or transformation temperatures intermediate between those which form pearlitemartensite, i.e., between about 800 and 500° K. It is an acicular structure of supersaturated ferrite containing particles of carbide, the dispersions of the latter depending on the formation temperature. Its hardness is intermediate between that of pearlite and martensite and exhibits mechanical properties similar to those of tempered martensite in a steel of the same carbon content.
The heavy beam by which a canal-lock gate may be swung on its Pintle, and which partially balances the outer end of the gate.
A box, filled with heavy material, used to counterbalance the weight of the jib and load of a crane of the cantilever type.
A switching device on a stereo radio which adjusts the amount of sound coming from the left and right speakers or from the front and rear speakers.
A crane with two arms, one having counterpoise arrangements to balance the load taken by the other.
One in which there are two identical signal-handling branches operating in phase opposition, with input and output connections balanced to ground.
A pick-up in which the reproducing needle is held by a screw in a magnetic arm, which is pivoted so that its motion diverts magnetic flux from one arm of a magnetic circuit to another, thereby inducing emf in coils on these arms.
For AC and DC, a circuit which is balanced to ground potential, i.e., the two conductors are at equal and opposite potentials with reference to ground at every instant.
A crankshaft with extended reinforcements to form counterbalancing or act as a vibration damper.
A term used, in connection with polyphase circuits, to denote currents which are equal to all the phases. Also applied to DC three-wire systems.
A system of air-supply to a boiler furnace, in which one fan forces air through the grate, while a second, situated in the uptake, exhausts the flue gases. The pressure in the furnace is thus kept atmospheric, i.e., is balanced.
A system of air-supply to a boiler furnace, in which one fan forces air through the grate, while a second, situated in the uptake, exhausts the flue gases. The pressure in the furnace is thus kept atmospheric, i.e., is balanced.
An engine in which all the reciprocating parts such as pistons and connecting rods are adjusted to exactly the same weight.
A disc-shaped device in a centrifugal pump which is attached to the pump shaft. The disc lifts when a force is applied to the underside of the disc allowing pressure to leak past until the axial forces are balanced.
Symmetrical laminated material in which the sequence of laminae above the center plane is the mirror image of that below it.
A line in which the impedances to ground of the two conductors are, or are made to be, equal. Also called balanced system
A load connected to a polyphase system, or to a single-phase or DC three-wire system, in such a way that the currents taken from each phase, or from each side of the system, are equal and at equal power factors.
A mixer, which may be made of discrete components or formed in stripline or waveguide, in which the local oscillator breakthrough in the output is minimized and certain harmonics suppressed. The contribution of local oscillator noise to the receiver’s overall performance is also reduced by such a mixer.
A modulator in which the carrier and modulating signal are combined in such a way that the output contains the two sidebands but not the carrier. Used in color television to modulate subcarriers, and in suppressed-carrier communication systems.
A network arranged for insertion into a Balanced circuit and therefore symmetrical electrically about the mid-points of its input and output pairs of terminals.
A cable with two conductors forming a loop circuit, the wires being electrically balanced to each other and ground (shield), e.g., an open-wire antenna feeder.
In an organ console, the foot-operated plate, pivoted so that it stays in any position, for remote control of the shutter of the chambers in which ranks of organ pipes are situated; it also serves for bringing in all the stops in a graded series.
Balanced protective system
A form of protective system for electric transmission lines and now widely used domestically in which the current entering the line or apparatus is balanced against that leaving it. Any fault, such as a short circuit to ground, upsets this balance and energizes a relay which trips the faulty circuit. Also called differential protective system or colloquially, ground leak relay or ground trip.
A two-terminal load in which both terminals present the same impedance to ground.
A term used, in connection with polyphase circuits, to denote voltage which are equal to all the phases. Also applied to DC three-wire systems.
A weave in which the length of free yarn between the intersections is the same as the warp and weft directions and on both sides of the fabric.
A flood gate which revolves about a vertical shaft near its center, and which may be made either self-opening or self-closing as the current sets in or out by giving a preponderating area to one leaf of the gate.
A factory installed patch used to bring a new tire within quality control balance tolerances before distribution and sale. It is placed inside the Tire casing and looks much like a nail hole repair patch.
A tube which joins two or more carburetors to even out the flow difference.
An autotransformer connected across the outer conductors of an ac three-wire system, the neutral wire being connected to an intermediate tapping.
An engine will normally vibrate because of the up-and-down motion of the pistons which turn a crankshaft in one direction. A balance shaft rotates (often in the opposite direction) so that its vibration cancels some of the vibration of the engine. Sometimes an engine will have two balance shafts turning in opposite directions located on either side of the crankshaft.
Auxiliary reception antenna which responds to interfering but not to the wanted signals. The interfering signals thus picked up are balanced against those picked up by the main antenna, leaving signals more free from interference.
A machine for testing the extent to which a revolving part is out of balance, and to determine the weight and position of the masses to be added, or removed, to obtain balance.
A clutch release mechanism (used in motorcycles) made of two stamped plates with three or four ramps. As one plate is rotated by the clutch cable, the balls climb the ramps, forcing the plates apart. This movement disengages the clutch.
Camera mounting allowing universal movement in rotation and tilt before fixing by clamping usually fitted to the top of tripod.
A joint between two rods, permitting considerable relative angular movement in any plane. A ball formed on the end of one rod is embraced by a spherical cup on the other. Used in light control systems (e.g., in connecting a pair of bell-cranks which operate in planes at right angles) and in the steering mechanism of motor vehicles, in which both ball and cups are of case-hardened metals. Heavier examples allow a large base plate to be placed under a supporting column in a jack-up pontoon or modified as bridge bearings to allow some articulation.
An ignition system which uses a Ballast resistor connected in series with the coil primary winding and which is bypassed when the starter is engaged so that the spark is more efficient under cold weather starting.
The addition of Liquid or Dry weight inside the tire to act as a counterbalance, to increase traction, reduce wheel spin, and dampen out bounce.
Normal incandescent lamp used as a ballast resistor, current limiter, alarm, or to stabilize a discharge lamp.
A term used in railway signaling to denote the resistance between the two track rails across the Ballast on which the track is laid. If allowed to fall too low, it will have the effect of shunting the signal from a trains’s wheels.
A resistor inserted into a circuit to swamp or compensate changes, e.g., those arising through temperature fluctuations. One similarly used to swamp the negative resistance of an arc or gas discharge. Also called ballast tube.
A Resistor constructed of a special type wire, the properties of which tend to increase or decrease the voltage in direct proportion to the heat of the wire.
A heavy block suspended by strings so that its swings are restricted to one plane. If a bullet is fired into the block, the velocity of the bullet may be calculated from a measurement of the angle of swing of the pendulum.
The study of the dynamics of the path taken by an object moving under the influence of a gravitational field.
A flexible Joint using a ball and Socket type of construction, used in Steering linkage setups, steering knuckle pivot supports, etc. Their flexibility helps to compensate for the changes in the wheel and steering when turning or hitting a bump on the road. There are usually upper and lower ball joints attached to the upper and lower A-arms. Some have a grease nipple to allow periodic lubrication.
A Rocker arm used by GM that is mounted upon a ball-shaped device on the end of a Stud instead of being mounted around a shaft.
Ball joint separator
A tool for forcing out ball or tapered joints. One style is shaped like a two-prong fork with a wedge-shaped jaw which is struck with a hammer to separate the joint. Another style uses direct pressure from a screw or screw-activated lever action to split the joint.
A single conductor plug which has a spring metal tip, in the shape of a banana. The corresponding socket or jack is termed a banana jack
Type of machine used for compounding rubber with vulcanizing ingredients and carbon black.
Bands are like a metal belt which is in the shape of a circle where the two ends are close, but do not meet. They wrap around parts inside the transmission called drums. The drums house the gears and clutches and freewheel until a certain gear needs to be applied. When first gear needs to be applied, the drum for first gear is locked up by the application of the band. By locking up the drum, the gears now drive the wheels rather than freewheel inside the drum.
The range of energies which correspond with those values which are forbidden for delocalized states, according to the Band theory of solids. Localized states such as those associated with ionized dopants, impurity atoms, or crystal imperfections exist in the gap. The generation of pairs of electrons and holes requires quanta of at least the energy of the band gap. Direct recombination likewise furnishes quanta with energies at least equal to the band gap.
Band ignitor tube
A valve of mercury pool type in which the control electrode is a metal band outside the glass envelope. Also called capacitron
A structural feature of wrought metallic materials revealed by etching, resulting from microstructural segregates and constitutional differences within the grain structure becoming drawn out in the direction of working.
Defect in videotape recording heads causing visible horizontal bands in the picture.
A plastic or metal strapping used to secure a product to a pallet or skid.
A device used to surround a metal band around freight or secure it to a pallet.
Filter which freely passes currents having frequencies within specified nominal limits, and highly attenuates currents with frequencies outside these limits.
A narrow endless strip of saw-blading running over and driven by pulleys, as a belt; the strip passes a work table placed normal to the straight part of the blade. The workpiece is forced against the blade and intricate shapes can be cut. Also used for cutting animal carcases in butchery.
Molecular optical spectrum consisting of numerous very closely spaced lines which are spread through a limited band of frequencies.
Use of a relatively small tuning capacitor in parallel with the main tuning capacitor of a radio receiver, so that fine tuning control can be done with the smaller; useful when the frequency band is crowded.
Mechanical means, like reduction gearing, to achieve the same result.
Filter which attenuates signals having frequencies within a certain range or band, while freely passing those outside this range. Also called band-rejection filter
Band theory of solids
For atoms brought together to form a crystalline solid, their outermost electrons are influenced by a periodic potential function, so that their possible energies form bands of allowed values separated by bands of forbidden values (in contrast to the discrete energy states of an isolated atom). These electrons are not localized or associated with any particular atom in the solid. This band structure is of fundamental importance in explaining the properties of metals, semiconductors, and insulators.
The range of audio frequencies that an audio component (radio) can handle.
The width, or spread, of the range of frequencies used for a given purpose, e.g., the width of individual channels allotted to speech or to television transmissions.
The space occupied in the frequency domain by signals of a specified nature, e.g., telephone quality speech, broadcast-quality stereophonic music, television, radar transmission, etc.
B & S
Abbreviation for Bore and Stroke which describes the width of a cylinder hole and the distance that the piston moves each time.
B & S gage
Abbreviation for Brown and Sharpe. A standard measure of wire diameter.
B & S gauge
Abbreviation for Brown and Sharpe. A standard measure of wire diameter.
A colloquial term used to express the cylinders in an engine. Often used with a number such as Six banger.
Besides being a musical instrument, this is a Fitting which is shaped like a banjo. It has round end that is doughnut shaped with a tube coming out from one side. It is usually used to transfer fluid from the center hole of the round end and out the lateral tube.
A drum-shaped central part of an axle casing containing the differential.
The commonest form of rear-axle casing in which the provision of the differential casing in the center produces a resemblance to a banjo with two necks.
A type of hydraulic fitting, shaped like a banjo, through which a hollow bolt passes, allowing fluid transfer from a hydraulic line to a hydraulic component.
Banjo rear axle housing
A rear axle housing from which the differential unit may be removed while the housing remains in place on the vehicle. The housing is solid from side to side. Compare Split rear axle housing
A number of similar pieces of equipment grouped in line and connected, e.g., a bank of engine cylinders, coke ovens, or transformers.
A boiler furnace in which the rate of combustion is purposely reduced to a very low rate for a period during which the demand for steam has ceased by e.g., covering the fire with slack or fine coal or banking up. Also called banked fire.
Method of magnetic testing in which the sample is in the form of a bar, clamped into a yoke of relatively large cross-section, which forms a low reluctance return path for the flux.
Woven fabric used for coats and suits and made from silk, worsted, or man-made fibers. Characteristic surface appearance arising from the twill or broken-rib weave used in its manufacture.
Law concerned with the plastic deformation of metal test pieces when strained to fracture in a tensile test; it states that test pieces of identical size deform in a similar manner.
Trucker slang for a low overpass where a large truck might clip its top if the truck’s clearance is higher than the height of the overpass.
An old style streamlined sports car devoted to racing. Distinctive because it had no doors or roof; but had either one or two separate seats. The name was also adopted by Fiat, Maserati, Lamborghini, Ferrari, Alfa Romeo, and other manufactuers of modern sports cars
A tool with a stationary head and a sliding foot for clamping purposes.
The phenomenon of discontinuous changes in the magnetization of a magnetic material while the magnetizing field is smoothly varied. It is the consequence of sudden changes in the domain structure as domain walls overcome various pinning defects and to a lesser extent as domain orientations discontinuously rotate away from preferred crystal areas H. G. Barkhausen (in 1919) detected voltage pulses induced in coils surrounding a magnetic sample as it was magnetized. Analogous ultrasonic emissions are also associated with the magnetization of magnetostrictive materials. The character of Barkhausen emissions is strongly dependent on microstructure and stress.
Oscillator with a triode valve having its grid more positive than the anode. Electrons oscillate about the grid before reaching the anode. Output frequency depends on the transit time of electrons through the tube.
A small lathe of which the bed consists of a single bar of circular, triangular, or rectangular section.
A plano-convex lens between the objective and eye-piece of a telescope to increase the magnification by increasing the effective focal length.
A straight bar-shaped permanent magnet, with a Pole at each end.
A rolling mill with grooved rolls, for producing round, square, or other forms of bar iron of small section.
Unit of effective cross-sectional area of nucleus equal to 10 -28 m². So called because it was pointed out that although one barn is a very small unit of area, to an elementary particle the size of an atom which could capture it is ‘as big as a barn door.’
A carriage where the driver sat in an open front seat while the passengers sat in two rows facing each other within the enclosed cabin much like a small stage coach. Only the rear passenger seat was protected by a folding cover.
A recording Barometer, usually of the aneroid type, in which variations of atmospheric pressure cause movement of a pen which traces a line on a clockwork driven revolving drum.
An instrument used for the measurement of atmospheric pressure. The Mercury barometer is preferable if the highest accuracy of readings is important, but where compactness has to be considered, the Aneroid barometer is often used.
(BMAP) A housing containing both BP and MAP sensors.
Necessary corrections to the readings of a mercury barometer for index error, temperature, latitude, and height.
The error in the time of swing of a pendulum due to change of air pressure. Though small, it is sometimes avoided in clocks by causing the pendulum to swing in an atmosphere of constant (low) pressure.
(BP) The pressure of the atmosphere as read by a barometer. Expressed in millibars (See Bar), the height of a column of mercury, or (SI) in hectopascals (SI units).
Barometric pressure sensor
(BARO or BP) A sensor found in the engine management system which detects the ambient barometric pressure so that precise fuel mixture can be maintained at different altitudes.
The rate of change of atmospheric pressure with time. The change of pressure during the previous three hours.
A device which maintains constant atmospheric pressure in a closed volume, e.g., the input and output pressure of fuel metering device of a gas turbine to compensate for atmospheric pressure variation with altitude.
Curvilinear distortion of an optical or electronic image in which horizontal and vertical straight lines appear barrel-shaped, bowed outwards. Also called positive distortion.
A device usually used to oxidize and thereby strip away hardened photoresist materials during semiconductor processing. In it a batch of wafers is exposed to a low-pressure oxygen plasma.
A machine for unscrambling, orienting and feeding small components during a manufacturing process, in which a revolving barrel tumbles the components on to a sloping, vibrating feeding blade.
An internally threaded screw with a slotted head.
Electroplating of many small items by placing them in a perforated barrel revolving in a vat filled with an appropriate plating solution. The barrel is made the cathode in the cell and the articles tumble against each other during rotation, continually touching at different places, and so become uniformly coated with the electrodeposit.
A drum defect caused by excessive wear at the center of the friction surface.
A hollow rocker arm shaped like a barrel.
Temperatures at which an extrusion or injection molding barrel is kept, usually rising to a peak at the nozzle. The range is determined by the polymer type and its melt viscosity.
Iron-wire resistor mounted in a glass bulb containing hydrogen, and having a temperature variation so arranged that the change of resistance ensures that the current in the circuit in which it is connected remains substantially constant over a wide range of voltage. Also called ballast tube
A temporary structure designed to warn vehicles that the road or a portion of the road is no longer usable.
A special cream which is applied to your hands before working on a greasy engine. When the job is over, you can wash your hands and easily remove the grease stains. Also called invisible glove or silicon glove
The effect produced by coating metal to shield it from corrosion.
In semiconductor junctions, the depletion layer
In an optical fiber cable, an intermediate layer of glass between the low refractive index core and the high refractive index cladding.
In general a layer placed so as to inhibit interdiffusion of heat, matter, etc.
A primer which is used on bare metal to prevent corrosion.
An arrangement for moving heavy electrical plant, using manpower. Rotating machines and transformers are equipped with wheels and movement is possible by inserting crowbars at suitable points and levering the equipment.
A small motor which can be temporarily connected, by a gear or clutch, to a large machine to turn it slowly for adjustment or inspection.
A method of mounting the motor on an electrically propelled vehicle. One side of the motor is supported on the driving axle and the other side by a spring-suspended bar lying transversely across the truck. Also called yoke suspension.
A Current transformer in which the primary consists of a single conductor that passes centrally through the iron core upon which the secondary is wound.
An armature winding for an electric machine whose conductors are formed of copper bars.
An armature with large sectioned conductors which are insulated and fixed in position and connected, in contrast with former-wound conductors which are sufficiently thin to be inserted, after shaping in a suitable jig.
The idle speed determined by the throttle lever setting on the carburetor or throttle body while the idle speed control (ISC) motor, or any other computer-controlled idle speed control device, is fully retracted and disconnected.
Base interest rate
The interest paid on the usage of the vehicle during a lease. It is the cost of a lease before factoring in discounts, fees, and penalties and is not directly comparable to the APR for a loan. Lowering the base interest rate is one of the methods manufacturers use to subsidize leases. The phrase money factor measures the same cost and can be converted into a base interest rate. For example, to convert a money factor of 0.00276 into an approximate base interest rate would multiply the money factor by 24. The result would be 0.0662 or 6.6%.
A fore-and-aft reference line at the upper surface of the flat plate keel at the centerline for flush shell plated vessels. Vertical dimensions are measured from a horizontal plane through the baseline, often called the molded baseline.
Any material (metal or plastic) which needs to be coated.
Metal that is under a coating or that needs to be coated.
Metal to be welded, cut, or brazed.
The least expensive vehicle with the least amount of features as standard equipment. It has the smallest engine and often manual transmission as well as few power equipment. Base models constitute only a small percentage of the cars sold. Sometimes called a stripper or stripped down unit.
A strong metal plate which is the main support for something.
The group of instruments essential for the flight handling of an aircraft and consisting of the airspeed indicator, vertical speed indicator, altimeter, heading indicator, gyro horizon, and turn and bank indicator.
Furnace slag rich in phosphorus (as calcium phosphate) which, with silicate and lime, is produced in steel making, and ground and sold for agricultural fertilizer.
The speed which an electric motor develops at rated voltage with rated load applied
Steel which has reacted with a basic lining or additive to produce a phosphorus-rich slag and a low-phosphorus steel.
A layout of flight instruments standardized for aircraft instrument panels in which four of the essential instrument panels in which four of the essential instruments are arranged in the form of a T. The pitch and roll attitude display is located at the junction of the T flanked by airspeed on the left and attitude on the right. The vertical bar portion of the T is taken up by directional information.
The ignition timing on a non-running engine according to the specifications. After the engine is running, the timing can be set more accurately.
The weight of the structure (wing, body, tail unit, and landing gear) of an aircraft, plus the propulsion system and the airframe services and equipment (mechanical systems, avionics, fuel tanks, and pipes). Includes residual oil and undrainable fuel but no operational equipment or payload.
A specified municipality or location within that municipality that a shipping company determines is on their route. The costs of shipping to that point is laid out in its rate book. However, if the delivery is to a nearby point, the rate is first calculated to the basing point and then a cost is added to the nearby point (if it is farther away) or subtracted (if it is before the basing point).
An old car which probably does not run. Often many engine and transmission parts have been removed and are either missing or stored in the trunk or a basket
Coil with criss-cross layers, so designed to minimize self-capacitance.
Amplifier circuit adjustment which regulates the attenuation of the lowest frequencies in the audio scale, usually to offset the progressive loss toward low frequencies.
Differential attenuation introduced into a sound-reproducing system when the loudness of the reproduction is reduced below normal, to compensate for the diminishing sensitivity of the ear toward the lowest frequencies reproduced.
A frequency close to the lower limit in an audio-frequency signal or a channel for such, e.g., below 250 Hz.
Something that is irregular, in between, or unusual.
A file (a tool) which has a coarse cut (as opposed to a finishing file). It is one cut finer than a coarse file. Files are classed as coarse, second cut, and smooth, from coarsest to finest. Thus, a bastard file is a cut in between a coarse and a second cut. The word bastard functions here in its meaning as irregular or neither coarse nor second cut.
A screw-thread which does not conform to any recognized standard dimensions.
The fly page before the full title page of a book. Often wrongly called a half-title
A furnace in which the charge is placed and heated to the requisite temperature. The furnace may be maintained at the operating temperature, or heated and cooled with the charge. Distinguished from Continuous furnace
Cylindrical grinding mill into which a quantity of material for precise grinding treatment is charged and worked until finished.
A number which may be added to a serial number to identify when the product was manufactured. In this way, when a problem occurs to some products of the same batch, action can be taken to correct or replace others from the same batch.
A process in a warehouse or parts department where the picker selects several units of each product at one time to fill several orders and then distributes them to each order in a staging or packing location.
Any process or manufacture in which operations are completely carried out on specific quantities or a limited number of articles, as contrasted to continuous or mass-production. In semiconductor manufacture, one in which several wafers are treated simultaneously as distinct from stages in which wafers are processed singly.
French term for boat for a boattail shape of the rear of early race cars because it looked like the prow of a boat (upside down).
A tub into which something is immersed.
A liquid solution used for cleaning, plating, or maintaining a specified temperature.
Bodywork resembling an upside-down bathtub used on the rear of some Triumph motorcycles. It was introduced in 1957 and dropped in the early 1960s. It was also used on Nash cars of the 50’s.
Bathtub combustion chamber
Click image to supersize
Bathtub combustion chamber
The volume in the cylinder above the piston that is shaped like an inverted bathtub with the valves in the bottom of the tub. Since all the valves can be arranged in a single row, the valve-operating camshaft and/or rocker gear are simple to design and operate. The long, oval shape of the bathtub controls excessive turbulence, and the flat areas where the piston comes right up to the head surface supply the squish needed to swirl the mixture. The wide cylinders and short piston strokes in modern engines make it possible to use large valves with bathtub heads for efficient gas flow.
A form of clinometer for finding the slope of cuttings and embankments
Click image to supersize
An electrochemical device with one or more cells for producing direct-current electricity by converting chemical energy. A Primary Cell delivers electric current as a result of an electrochemical reaction that is not efficiently reversible, so the cell cannot be recharged efficiently. A Secondary Cell is an electrolytic cell for generating electric energy, in which the cell after being discharged may be restored to a charged condition by sending a current through it in the direction opposite to that of the discharging current. The typical automotive lead-acid battery supplies the source of power for cranking the engine and also provides the necessary electrical energy for the ignition system. In addition, it can (for a limited time) furnish current when the electrical demands of the vehicle exceed the alternator or generator output. Also called the storage battery.
Electrolyte (usually sulfuric acid) in each of the battery cells.
Battery acid tester
A hydrometer for checking the strength of the acid mixture in each cell of a battery. Fluid is sucked into the instrument by squeezing and releasing the bulb. The scale measures the acid.
Battery and coil ignition system
An ignition system with a battery as the source of primary ignition current.
A motor-generator set used for giving an extra voltage, to enable a battery to be charged from a circuit of a voltage equal to the normal voltage of the battery.
A specially designed brush set which cleans the outside terminals of the battery post as well as the inside of the battery cable so that good contact is made.
Heavy gage wires used to connect the battery to the vehicle’s electrical system.
Small caps which seal each battery cell.
The amp-hour capacity.
Individual compartments in a battery which is filled with electrolyte. Six-volt batteries have three cells, 12-volt batteries have six cells.
The box made of polypropylene holding several chambers (cells) which have lead plates and filled with electrolyte.
The condition or state of the amount of electricity in a battery.
Battery charge indicator
An instrument which shows the state of charge in a battery.
Click image to supersize
An electric device which is plugged into an electrical outlet (e.g., 110 volt AC) and connected to the two terminals of the battery to restore the state of charge in the battery. One of leads coming from the charger is red and the other is black. The red lead is clamped on the positive post of the battery while the other is clamped on the frame of the vehicle.
With the advent of electric cars, there needs to be places where their batteries can be recharged periodically — thus is born the battery charging station. Also called a charging point.
A hold down device which secures the battery from moving around.
Battery coil ignition
High-tension supply for spark plugs in automobiles, in which the interruption of a primary current from a battery induces a high secondary emf in another winding on the same magnetic circuit, the high tension being distributed in synchronism with the contact-breaker in the primary circuit.
A place in the vehicle where the battery is located. In cars and trucks it may be found under the hood (usually toward the front), under one of the seats, or in the trunk. In motorcycles it is found in the middle of the bike, under the seat.
A device with a long hollow tube with a rubber bulb at one end. It is used for inserting into a container of Battery acid and sucking up the acid, then inserting into the battery cell to fill it. However, motorcycle batteries arrive from the manufacturer with no electrolyte (battery acid). Battery acid comes in a large plastic container with a rubber hose to which a metering clamp is attached. The container is usually placed on a higher shelf so that it is fed into the battery by gravity and regulated by the metering clamp.
Battery fill line
A horizontal line on the side of a translucent battery case which indicates the level to which you fill it with electrolyte. Usually there are two lines indicating a minimum level and maximum level.
The battery does not have enough electrical power to start the car.
Battery is flat
The battery does not have enough electrical power to start the car.
Battery load tester
Battery Load Tester
An instrument which is applied to the terminals of a battery. When first installed, the battery voltage appears on the dial. By pressing a switch, the voltage is channeled through a series of resistors. While a battery may indicates 12 volts or more without a load, it may not meet the amperage for which it is rated when under load.
A control which cuts power from the battery to the other components of the vehicle. Used to disable a vehicle so that thieves have a harder time stealing the vehicle.
Battery positive voltage
(B+) A term used to designate positive voltage at or near the battery level.
The terminal on a battery to which the cable is attached. Older automobile batteries used a round post which stood up from the top of the battery. To avoid confusion, the positive post has a larger diameter than the negative. On newer batteries the post may or may not be abandoned in favor of a terminal on the side of the battery. On motorcycle batteries, the posts are usually flat with a hole for bolting the cables to them.
Battery powered electrical system
An electrical system having a lead-acid battery as a source of power. The battery is recharged by a charging system using either a generator or alternator.
Battery regulating switch
A switch to regulate the number of cells connected in a series in a battery.
A special form of spike used to connect a voltmeter to the plates of the accumulator cells for battery-testing under load. The voltmeter incorporates a low resistance in shunt which simulates a heavy load on the battery, thus testing its work capability. The heavy current passed for this purpose necessitates special heavy duty battery connectors.
A wire cable or braided wire strap to transfer electricity. It can be found between the engine block and the chassis because the engine is isolated from the chassis by rubber mounts. Also called ground strap.
A rubber strap with metal hooks at each end and is used to secure a battery in place, especially on motorcycles.
System of visual lights indicating fixed features, e.g., masts, reefs.
A radio-beacon, which can be of any frequency but is usually very high frequency, and can be omni-directional or of directional beam type.
Vertical fan marker beacons are radio beams used to identify particular spots in control zones and on approach patterns.
A non-directional beacon (NDB) is a transmitter, the bearing of which can be determined only by an aircraft equipped for direction finding.
The portion of a tire which fits onto the rim of the wheel. On a Tubeless tire, the contact of the bead with the rim seals the air into the tire. Bead heel, bead sole, and bead toe form a foot-like shape.
A small ball-like particle used in bead blasting or in some catalytic converters.
In welding, it is the appearance of the finished weld. It describes the neatness of the ripples formed by the metal while it was in a semi liquid state.
A formed, often ornamental molding, usually pliable, sometimes fitted as a sealer like welting between two exterior body panels; e.g., between the fenders and body.
The pointed, or horn=shaped, end of a blacksmith’s anvil, used in forging rings, bends, etc.
A T-shaped stake, similarly shaped, fitting in the hardy hole of the anvil. Also called beck iron, bickern, bick iron.
A projection of light. A collimated, or approximately unidirectional, flow of electromagnetic radiation (radio, light, X-rays), or of particles (atoms, electrons, molecules). The angular beam width is defined by the half-intensity points.
A wooden or metal cylinder having large flanges at each end. Warp yarns are wound on the beam from cones or cheeses correctly arranged for inserting into the loom or warp-knitting machine. Beams are also used to furnish thread during lace making.
Generally, any antenna which has focus or direction. Most commonly used to describe short-wave or very high-frequency antennas, rather than microwave antennas which are almost invariably directional.
A rigid or dead axle which supports the non-driven wheels.
An instrument for describing large arcs. It consists of a beam of wood or metal carrying two beam heads, adjustable for position along the beam, and serving as the marking points of the compasses. Also called trammels
An integrated circuit bonding option for high-frequency applications in which material is etched clear of part of the metallization layer to provide a short beam of metal (usually gold). The chip is then inverted and the beam is bonded direct to conducting tracks.
Tetrode having an additional pair of plates, normally connected internally to the cathode, so designed as to concentrate the electron beam between the screen grid and anode, and thus reduce secondary emission effects.
To turn, as in the expression, When you get to the corner, bear right.
Trucker slang for a highway patrol police officer named for Smokey the Bear because they both wore similar hats.
Trucker slang for a leader in a group of trucks as in ‘Looks like Swift is the bear bait tonight’ where bear refers to a police officer (i.e., Smokey the Bear).
Trucker slang for a police station on the highway (also called a zoo) as in The bear cave is empty tonight so watch out.
Picture defect in which dark image areas spread into adjacent light areas
Beard protective system
A form of balanced protective system in which the current entering the winding of an alternator is balanced against that leaving it by passing the conductor at the two ends around the core of a single current transformer, in opposite directions, so that there is normally no flux in the transformer core.
The physical medium and set of protocols used to carry useful traffic as opposed to those used merely for the control signals that set up and maintain the link.
The area of a unit in which the contacting surface of a revolving part rests in order to minimize wear and friction between two surfaces.
The horizontal angle between any survey line and a given reference direction
Angle of direction in horizontal plane in degrees from true north, e.g., of an arriving radio wave as determined by a direction-finding system. Also azimuth.
An antifriction reducing device that is usually found between two moving parts. The Babbitt bearings found between the Connecting rod and the crankshaft are lubricated and cushioned with oil, and the front wheel bearings must be repacked with Grease at regular intervals. Bearings can be ball or roller type.
When more than one load needs to be supported, several bearings are used making up the bearing assembly. For instance, a crankshaft may have two bearings (one at each end) as well as a few more in the middle.
The bearing Race that curves around the outside of a ring of Ball bearings and works in conjunction with a Cone.
The outer race for a ball or roller bearing.
A stray current, induced by magnetic flux linking the shaft of an electrical machine, that flows between the shaft and bearings and may injure the bearing surfaces.
The bottom part of a nut or bolt head which clamps down on the surface of the part it is securing.
The cavity into which the bearing fits.
The noise created by movement of a part in a loose or worn bearing.
The metal layer which forms the surface of the wear part of the bearing.
Metals (alloys) used for that part of a bearing which is in contact with the Journal; e.g., bronze or white metal, used on account of their low coefficient of friction when used with a steel shaft.
A column which is sunk or driven into the ground to support a vertical load by transmitting it to a firm foundation lower down, or by consolidating the soil so that its bearing power is increased. Formerly of timber but now mor usually reinforced concrete or steel.
Amount of static pressure exerted on a bearing or a set of bearings. The preload is usually adjusted by a threaded collar or shims.
A tool used to remove bearings from a shaft by pulling them off. It has two or more arms which circle around the back side of the bearing and a center post which butts up against the end of the shaft. As the center post is screwed down, the arms pull the bearing toward the end of the shaft.
A tool used to separate double bearings or close-fitting gears when a conventional Bearing puller cannot be used
One of a pair of thin semicircular steel cups lined with an alloy such as copper-lead or lead-indium, which together enclose a shaft or other rotating member, and are held in a circular housing which can be divided into two halves.
On a bicycle or motorcycle, a piece of tubing used between the wheel bearing inner races to prevent unwanted bearing preload as the axle is tightened.
A type of bearing failure in which a lack of lubrication overheats the bearing until it seizes on the shaft, shears its locking lip, and rotates in the housing or block.
A purposely manufactured small extra distance across the parting faces of the bearing half, in excess of the actual diameter of the housing bore. Thus the diameter is slightly greater than the housing into which a shell bearing is being placed. Thus the bearing is forced into place to reduce its movement.
The area of the bearing that is in actual contact with the shaft or other supporting member.
The part of a fastener such as the washer face of a nut or under the head of a machine screw that actually comes in contact with the part it fastens.
A notch or lip on a bearing shell used to correctly locate the bearing during assembly.
The supporting or abutment wall of a bridge or arch.
Bear in the air
Trucker slang for an overhead highway patrol as in ‘Slow down Roadrunner you got a bear in the air past the next rest area.’
Trucker slang for a speeding truck without a radar detector as in ‘That gearjamming large car is bear meat.’
Trucker slang for asking for the location of the cops as in ‘Can I get a bear report there Covenant.’
A vehicle which performs very well.
Periodic variation in the amplitude of a summation wave containing two sinusoidal components of nearly equal frequencies.
An old or collectible vehicle that is in Driveable condition, but looks terrible inside and out, and probably is missing many original parts. Often used to describe a vehicle that is past the easy Restoration stage but still contains many good driving miles. It is also a term for urban combat car and is usually used in conjunction with the word winter, as in winter beater, which is a vehicle that is so far gone, it is sacrificed to the salt covered roads of winter. It is a disposable collectible that is driven until it disintegrates. In other words, it looks as if someone had been beating it for quite a while. British term is Banger.
A device for hitting something.
A vat containing a heavy cylindrical roll (beater roll), fitted with bars, parallel to the Journal, which rotates against a fixed set of bars (bedplate). The paper fibers in suspension in water pass between these bars in preparation for sheet making.
High-speed revolving shaft having arms equipped with blades or pins. These beat out the heavy impurities in matted raw fibers in opening and Scutching processes.
The side of the wheel that is exposed to the exterior of the vehicle rather than the side that is attached to the axle. Also called Wheel face.
Heavy woollen woven overcoating simulating the lustrous nap of the skin of the beaver by milling and raising the fibers, butting them level and laying them in the same direction.
A hinged (usually hydraulic) ramp on the end of a flatbed trailer enabling vehicles or heavy equipment to drive onto the trailer.
An antenna producing a broad, flat, radar beam.
A prospective buyer who has been in the dealership before, but has returned for more information or is ready to buy.
(TMTSF) 2 X where X is an inorganic anion such as (PF 6 )-, (AlO 4 )-, (ReO 4 -, and TMTSF is the tetramethyl selenium derivative of TTF (tetrathiofulvalene). These salts are organic electrical conductors.
Hydrometer for measuring the relative density of liquids less dense than water. Graduated in degrees Beck, where °Beck=200(1-rel.d.)
Apparatus used for measuring the freezing and boiling points of solutions.
A limited range mercury thermometer with a large bulb. It is used to measure small changes of temperature with great precision. Its mean range can be altered by moving mercury from a reservoir in or out of the bulb.
(Bq) SI unit of radioactivity; one becquerel is the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. Replaces the curie 1Bq=2.7×10 -11 Ci. It is a very small unit and commonly used with the standard SI prefixes, a gigabecquerel (Gbq or 10 9 Bq) being often needed.
A cast-iron or fabricated steel base, to which the frame of an engine or other machine is attached.
The lower part of an engine which rests on the foundation.
An apparatus attached to a truck bed which allows longer items to be secured in place
Colloquial term for making something stronger.
Colloquial term for modifying or improving something so it will work faster or more efficiently. Similar to Souped up
Colloquial term for BMW.
Colloquial term for BMW.
A machine consisting of a row of wooden or metal hammers, which fall on a roll of damp cloth as it revolves. The operation closes the spaces between the warp and the weft yarns, and imparts a soft glossy finish to cotton and linen.
Colloquial term for the original rear-engined Volkswagen.
(BTDC) As the crankshaft rotates, it pushes the piston up to a place just before the top of its movement.
Before upper dead center
(BUDC) As the crankshaft rotates, it pushes the piston up to a place just before the top of its movement.
The list of the number of all products and their value which is determined at the beginning of a period.
A device mounted on a bicycle and used to warn pedestrians and other bikes of your approach. A hollow metallic vessel with a flared mouth which, when struck, vibrates with a fundamental frequency determined by parameters such as its mass and dimensions.
A component that is shaped like half a ball or egg.
High tin bronze, containing up to 30% tin and some zinc and lead. Used in casting bells.
Bell-shaped air intake attached to some carburetors.
A form of brake drum distortion in which the open edge of the drum has a large diameter than the closed edge.
Said of a hole or bore when its diameter gradually increases toward one or both open ends, the bore profile in section being curved. Usually a manufacturing fault.
A sealed, accordion-type chamber (gas filled or vacuum) which expands and contracts in accordance with temperature changes or provides a seal during movement of parts. Used as an air conditioning control device on many systems.
The flexible connection between parts of a camera or enlarger, necessarily light-tight, to permit delicate adjustments, usually of focusing.
corrugated cylindrical container which moves as pressures change, or provides a seal during movement of parts
Method of sealing the valve stem. The ends of the sealing material are fastened to the bonnet and to the stem. Seal expands and contracts wit the stem level.
An expanding diaphragm used as a seal between the master cylinder reservoir and the reservoir cover. It prevents air from contacting the fluid, yet it allows the fluid to change in volume.
Bells and whistles
A colloquial term for a myriad of options provided on a vehicle as in the expression, ‘My car isn’t the standard model because it has all the bells and whistles.’
A portable inverted furnace or heated cover operated in conjunction with a series of bases upon which the work is to be heated can be loaded and then left to cool after heat treatment. Used chiefly for bright annealing of non-ferrous metals and bright-hardening of steels.
Boxes attached under the floor of a trailer which can carry cargo, but more often carry spare parts or dunnage.
A hopper bottom trailer, both empty their load from underneath via gravity.
A sheetmetal plate attached to the bottom of a vehicle body to protect the engine and its components as well as to provide better aerodynamics.
In order to transmit power from a source to a destination, some kind of connection is needed. A bicycle, for instance, uses a chain drive to transmit the power from pedaling action to the rear wheel. A belt drive uses a leather or rubber belt to transfer power from one pulley to another thus increasing or decreasing the speed of rotation of the driven pulley through mechanical advantage. For instance the alternator is rotated by a belt (sometimes called the fan belt) which is driven by a shaft which is directly attached to the crankshaft. Some motorcycle models (like Harley Davidson and Honda) have a belt drive to transmit power to the rear wheels. Since a belt drive requires no lubrication (in contrast with chain drive) it is one of the cleanest final drive systems.
A final-drive system that uses a cogged belt and two sprockets to transmit the power to the rear wheel. The belt performs the same function as a conventional chain.
Belted bias tire
A tire which uses both cross-ply and radial-ply patterns with added belts (such as used on radial-ply tires) on diagonal body plies (as in cross-ply tires). As a result the tire has stiffer sidewalls than tires with just straight radial plies.
A tire with a stabilizing belt of two or more plies of steel, fiberglass, etc., running circumferentially around the tire between the carcass and the tread rubber. The carcass can be either radial or bias ply.
At any transverse section of a beam, the algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces to either side of the section.
Bending moment diagram
Diagram representing the variation of bending moment along a beam. It is a graph of bending moment (y-axis) against distance along the beam axis (x-axis).
Pliers with flat, smooth jaws used to hold sheet metal in place.
A large machine used to give curvature to plates. It usually has three rolls with axes arranged in a triangle so that adjusting one relative to the others forms a curve on a strip or sheet of metal passed between them.
Heavy cast iron perforated thick plate arranged to form a large floor on which frames, etc., are bent.
Coil spring which is placed on inside or outside of tubing to keep it from collapsing while bending it.
The ability of metal to resist bending (i.e., Bending moment). Also called flexural strength.
A test made on a beam to determine its deflection and strength under bending load. The most usual forms are symmetrical three-point and symmetrical four-point bending, the advantage of the latter being that a constant bending moment is imposed between the two central loading points. Also called flexural test.
A forge test in which flat bars etc. are bent through 180° as a test of ductility.
Wave observed on thin plates and bars. The motion is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Important for sound radiation from walls and enclosures.
(C6H6) An aromatic hydrocarbon which is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid. It is present in small proportion in some crude oils and made commercially from petroleum by the catalytic reforming of naphthenes in petroleum naphtha. Also made from coal in the manufacture of coke. Used as a solvent in the manufacture of detergents, synthetic fibers, petrochemicals, and as a component of high-octane gasoline.
A by-product of manufacture of coke. Sometimes it is used as an engine fuel. Has good anti-knock properties.
A carpet square hand-woven by North Africans from hand-spun yarns from the natural colored wool of local sheep. Commonly misused to describe machine-made carpets considered to have a similar appearance.
A World War I term describing a closed luxury vehicle with small windows. The passengers were able to see out; but it was difficult to see in thus maintaining their privacy
A two-door sedan
A horizontal ledge on the side of an embankment or cutting, to intercept earth rolling down the slopes, or to add strength to the construction. Also called bench
A low earth fill constructed in the path of flowing water to divert its direction, or constructed to act as a counterweight beside the road fill to reduce the risk of foundation failure (buttress).
A channel cut along a berm to drain off excess water.
In a stream of liquid, the sum of elevation head, pressure head, and velocity remains constant along any line of flow provided no work is done by or upon liquid on course of its flow; decreases in proportion to energy lost in flow.
The law that for a non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady flow, the sum of the pressure and kinetic energies per unit volume is constant at any point. It is a fundamental law of fluid mechanics.
A place for a ship
A place to sleep
A specified small section of the hull structure
An Italian automobile manufacturer noted for creative design. Usually called Gruppo Bertone. Includes X1/9 (1988).
Compounds of other metals with beryllium
A copper-base alloy containing w.25% of beryllium. Develops great hardness (i.e., 300-400 Brinell) after quenching from 800°C followed by heating to 300°C.
Large barrel-shaped tilting furnace, charged while fairly vertical with molten metal, and ‘blown’ by air introduced below through tuyères. Discharged by tilting. Now obsolete but replaced by variety of similar shaped but smaller vessels operating in slightly different ways and using oxygen in place of air.
Bessemer pig iron
Pig iron which has been dephosphorized in Bessemer converter lined with basic refractory material.
Process in which impurities are removed from molten metal or matte by blowing air through molten charge in Bessemer converter. Used to remove carbon and phosphorus from steel, sulfur and iron from copper matte.
Best selected copper
Metal of a lower purity than high-conductivity copper. Generally contains over 99.75% copper. Compare Casting copper.
Copper-zinc alloys, containing 46-49% zinc, which consists (at room temperature) of the intermediate constituents (or intermetallic compound) known as β.
Radioactive disintegration with the emission of an electron or positron accompanied by an uncharged antineutrino or neutrino. The mass number of the nucleus remains unchanged but the atomic number is increased by one or decreased by one depending on whether an electron or positron is emitted.
A radiation detector specially designed to measure β-radiation.
For electron (βa) emission it is the sum of the energies of the particles, the neutrino and the recoil atom. For positron (β + ) emission there is in addition the energy of the rest masses of two electrons.
Iron in the temperature range 750°C – 860°C, in which a change from the magnetic (alpha) state to the paramagnetic occurs at about 760°C. With carbon in solution the transition is lowered toward 720°C, and when cooling Recalescence is more marked.
An electron or positron emitted in beta decay from a radioactive isotope. Also called β-particle
Spectrometer which determines the spectral distribution of energies of β-particles from radioactive substances or secondary electrons.
Beta thickness gauge
Instrument measuring thickness, based on absorption and backscattering (reflection) by material or sample being measured of β-particles from a radioactive source.
Said of atoms differing in atomic number by one unit. One atom can be considered as ejecting an electron (beta particle) to produce the other one.
Machine used to accelerate electrons to energies of up to 300MeV in pulsed output. The electrons move in an orbit or constant radius between the poles of an electromagnet, and a rapidly alternating magnetic field provides the means of acceleration.
In fusion, the ratio of the outward pressure exerted by the plasma to the inward pressure which the magnetic field is capable of exerting. Also called plasma beta
French, originally for lime concrete, now for any kind of concrete.
Surface area of a powder calculated from gas adsorption data, by the method devised by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller.
An electrolytic process for refining lead after drossing. The electrolyte is a solution of lead silica fluoride and hydrofluorsilicic acid, and both contain some gelatine. Impurities are all more noble metals than lead and remain on the anode. Gold and silver are recovered from anode sponge.
Trucker slang for a husband or wife as in ‘I sure do miss my better half.’
The crimped edge of metal that secures the glass face to an instrument. A bezel can be either decorative or functional. Some bezels are threaded and secure switches and control Buttons to the dash, Console, or Steering column.
A small indicator light (e.g., for direction signal lights) on instrument panel.
A grooved ring holding the glass of a watch or an instrument dial.
Abbreviation for Brinell hardness number, obtained in the Brinell hardness test. Preferred term is now H B after the hardness number. Obtained by forcing a round steel ball into the surface of the object to be tested under a known load and subsequently measuring the diameter of the indentation so produced.
A type of tire construction in which there are bias plies as well as a belt of steel or synthetic (rayon, nylon, or fiberglass) cords between the carcass and the tread. The belt Overlaps the bias plies and wraps around the circumference. The cords and belt cross each other at Bias angles.
Non-signal current supplied to electrode of semiconductor device, magnetic amplifier, tape recorder, etc. to control operation at optimal working point.
A modification of a balanced protective system, in which the amount of out-of-balance necessary to produce relay operation is increased as the current in the circuit being protected is increased.
In observations, sampling, etc., introduction of a systematic error through some malfunction of instrument or weakness in method used, so that error accumulates in a series of measurements.
Polarization of a recording head in magnetic tape recording, to improve linearity of amplitude response, using DC or using AC much higher than the maximum audio-frequency to be reproduced.
A special form of transformer used in one form of biased protective system
Bias ply tire
A tire having two or more carcass plies arranged in a criss-cross manner and diagonally to the beads and travels approximately 1/3 the distance around the circumference before attaching to the other bead. Each cord in the next ply is arranged in the same manner, but in the opposite direction. Also called a conventional tire or cross-ply tire
A type of tire construction in which the tire cords or plies run diagonally from bead to bead. Generally in passenger cars, there are two plies of fabric. In a P185/80D13 tire, the D indicates a bias-ply tire. Sometimes called a conventional tire.
Resistor formed by winding a resistor with a hairpin-shaped length of resistance wire, thus reducing the total inductance.
The suspension of a body by two parallel vertical wires or threads which give a considerable controlling torque.
A motor vehicle with two separate fuel systems designed to run on either an alternative fuel, gasoline or diesel, using only one fuel at a time (i.e., not a mixture of the fuels). Each fuel is stored in a separate tank. Bi-fuel vehicles are referred to as dual-fuel vehicles in the CAA and EPACT.
A rivet with a split shank, used for holding together sheets of light material; it is closed by opening and tapping down the two halves of the shank.
A large V-8 engine produced in the ’60s and ’70s. It typically has a cast-iron block and head and is fed by a carburetor. Contrasts with Small-block engine. Although both engines were of the same displacement, the big-block engine was larger in overall size than the small-block engine. Thus, as vehicles grew smaller and more equipment was stuffed into the engine bay, the small-block engine was favored over its larger brother.
Big Cowl and Chassis Bus Type
A type of bus depicting non-school bus coaches mounted on a truck-based, flat back cowl (medium- or heavy-duty truck hood and fender assembly).
The end of the connecting rod which fits around the crankpin.
The part of the connecting rod which is attached to the crankshaft
The detachable end of the connecting rod which fits on the crankpin.
A colloquial term for a device for opening door locks. It is a flexible metal strip about an inch wide and very thin and has a J-shaped end. It is inserted between the door window and the door frame to trigger the latch.
A large truck — usually a tractor-trailer unit.
Trucker slang for 24 inch tires as in ‘I just bought new big rubber for my rig.’
General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler.
The engines in the larger Harley-Davidson bikes.
A twelve-sided figure. Some nuts and bolt heads have twelve sides.
Abbreviation for Bilimportorenes Landsforening (Norway).
Abbreviation for the Association of Swedish Automobile Manufacturers and Wholesalers — BIL deals with matters relating to automotive safety, automobile taxes, environmental protection, distribution, trade policy, traffic policy and Swedish and international regulations
Any electrical or electromechanical device through which power can be transmitted in either direction.
A slit used in a spectrometer and consisting of two metal strips whose separation can be accurately adjusted.
A tolerance with dimensional limits above and below the basic size.
A recess area fitted at the curved section between the bottom and the side into which water drains from holds or other spaces.
The curved part of the shell joining the bottom to the sides.
The space inside meaning #2, at the sides of the cellular double bottom, into which unwanted water drains.
Supporting blocks used under the bilge for support during construction or dry docking.
A vertical transverse flat plate welded to the tank top or margin plate and to the frame in the area of the bilge.
A long longitudinal fin fitted on the curved of a ship at the turn of the bilge to reduce rolling.
Two types of metal bonded into a strip and formed into a coil. Each type of metal has different thermal expansion characteristics, so the coil straightens when heated and coils up when cold. Bimetals are used mainly to open and close choke plates on carbureted vehicle.
A fuse element composed of two different metals, e.g., a copper wire coated with tin or lead.
Bimetal heat sensor
(BHS) A strip (usually coiled) consisting of two metals with different expansion characteristics. Bimetal strips are used in thermostatically controlled devices because they move or bend toward the metal that expands least when heat is applied.
Bimetallic brake drum
A drum with an aluminum outer drum cast around a preformed iron liner.
When two different metals are attached to each other, some electrons tend to move from one metal to the other. This action happens especially when there is a little moisture between the two pieces.
Consists of a thermocouple (an arm made of two dissimilar metals with different rates of thermal expansion) that flexes in accordance with temperature changes. Used as a temperature sensor. Also called Bimetal sensor
Bonded strip composed of two metals with differing thermal expansion coefficients; the strip deflects when one side of the strip expands more than the other. Used e.g., in thermal switches.
A device that consists of a thermocouple, an arm made of two dissimilar metals with different rates of thermal expansion, that flexes in accordance with temperature changes. Used as a temperature sensor. Also called Bimetallic sensor
Unit in microphones and vibration detectors in which two piezoelectric plates are cemented together in such a way that application of potential difference causes one to contract and the other to expand, so the combination bends as in a Bimetallic strip
A four-sided structure that is mounted on a pallet. It might have a cover.
Flip-flop or toggle circuit which gives one output pulse for two input pulses, thus dividing by two
Binary frequency shift keying
A digital Modulation scheme in which 1 and 0 are represented by switching the Carrier between two different frequencies. It is 3 dB less resistant to additive white Gaussian noise interference than Binary phase shift keying
An alloy formed by two metals, this is represented by the binary constitutional diagram for the system. In general, any two-component system.
A heat-engine using two separate working fluids, generally mercury vapor and steam, for the high- and low-temperature portions of the cycle respectively, thus enabling a large temperature range to be used, with improved thermal efficiency.
Listening with two-ears, the result of which is a sense of directivity of the arrival of a sound wave. Said of a stereophonic system with two channels (matched) applying sound to a pair of ears separately, e.g., by earphones. The effect arises from relative phase delay between wavefronts at each ear.
Component used in the mix of carbon products, organic brake linings, sintered metals, tar macadam, etc. to impart cohesion to the body to be formed. The binder may have cold setting properties, or subsequently be heat-treated to give it permanent properties as part of the body or to remove it by volatilization.
The ingredient in a paint that holds or suspends the Pigmentparticles together.
A glue used to hold the various elements of a brake friction material together
Material which shows little tendency to flow until a critical stress is reached (e.g., toothpaste or modeling clay). Also called Bingham flow
Trucker slang for the paper cards that hold trucking permits from different states as in ‘Better get your bingo cards out, they’re checkin’ em at the chicken coop.’
The cluster of instruments and switches mounted in a circular casing on or near the steering column.
A pair of telescopes for use with both eyes simultaneously. Essential components are an objective, an eyepiece and some system of prisms to invert and reverse the image.
A linear array in which the current amplitudes are proportional to the coefficients of a binomial expansion. Such an array has no side lobes.
The use of enzymes and catalysts to change biological substances chemically to produce energy products. For example, the digestion of organic wastes or sewage by microorganisms to produce methane is a biochemical process.
A product which kills any fungus or microbes that may have contaminated Diesel fuel.
A product which is capable of being decomposed by bacteria into harmless elements without danger to the environment.
Diesel fuel made from animal or vegetable fats.
A biodegradable transportation fuel for use in diesel engines that is produced through transesterification of organically derived oils or fats. Biodiesel is used as a component of diesel fuel. In the future it may be used as a replacement for diesel.
The mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstocks, such as vegetable oils and animal fats, for use in compression ignition (diesel) engines. Manufactured by transestrification of the organic feedstock by methanol.
Any liquid biofuel suitable as a diesel fuel substitute or diesel fuel additive or extender. Biodiesel fuels are typically made from oils such as soybeans, rapeseed, or sunflowers, or from animal tallow. Biodiesel can also be made from hydrocarbons derived from agricultural products such as rice hulls.
Liquid fuels and blending components produced from biomass (plant) feedstocks, used primarily for transportation.
Produced by biological processes of living organisms. Note EIA uses the term biogenic to refer only to organic nonfossil material of biological origin.
Time interval required for half of a quantity of radioactive material absorbed by a living organism to be eliminated naturally.
A cavity within a nuclear reactor in which biological specimens are placed for irradiation experiments.
Renewable organic nonfossil matter such as agricultural crops, crop-waste residues, wood, animal and municipal wastes, aquatic plants; fungal growth, etc., used for the production of energy.
A medium Btu gas containing methane and carbon dioxide, resulting from the action of microorganisms on organic materials such as a landfill.
Organic non-fossil material of biological origin that is a byproduct or a discarded product. Biomass waste includes municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural crop byproducts, straw, and other biomass solids, liquids, and gases; but excludes wood and wood-derived fuels (including black liquor), biofuels feedstock, biodiesel, and fuel ethanol. Note EIA biomass waste data also include energy crops grown specifically for energy production, which would not normally constitute waste.
Laws stating that the rotation produced by optically active media is proportional to the length of path, to the concentration (for solutions) and to the inverse square of the wavelength of the light.
The heat transfer to a wall by a flowing medium, giving the ratio of heat transfer by convection to that by conduction. Defined as αθ/λ, where α is the heat transfer coefficient, λ is the thermal conductivity of medium, and θ is the characteristic length of apparatus.
Expression for the intensity of magnetic flux density produced at a point a distance from a current-carrying conductor.
An aircraft or glider with two main supporting surfaces (two wings on each side) above one another.
An electrode in an electroplating bath not connected to either the anode or cathode. Also called secondary electrode.
Conductive plate in a fuel cell stack that acts as an anode for one cell and a cathode for the adjacent cell. The plate may be made of metal or a conductive polymer (which may be a carbon-filled composite). The plate usually incorporates flow channels for the fluid feeds and may also contain conduits for heat transfer.
A transistor that uses both positive and negative charge carriers. Both p-n-p and n-p-n types of bipolar transistor can be manufactured, as discrete devices, or for incorporation into integrated circuits.
Two prisms of very acute angle placed side by side and used as a focusing aid on the screens of cameras.
A person who refers prospective customers to a particular dealership or salesman for a given fee or compensation.
In microelectronic fabrication; descriptive of the shape of that part of a silicon dioxide layer grown on a silicon wafer near the edge of a region which is protected from oxidation by a diffusion barrier.
Sending highway freight by air.
(BG) Systems of designating the diameters of rods and wires by numbers. Obsolescent, being replaced by preferred metric dimensions.
Birmingham wire gauge
(BWG) Systems of designating the diameters of rods and wires by numbers. Obsolescent, being replaced by preferred metric dimensions.
Resistor made from a thick film or bismuth ruthenate fired with a glass; noted for stability.
Flat coil of bismuth wire used in magnetic flux measurements; the change of flux is measured by observing the change in resistance of the bismuth wire, which increases with increasing fields.
Valve or transistor circuit which has two stable states which can be decided by input signals, much used in counters and scalers.
A motor like an ordinary synchronous motor but running at twice synchronous speed.
A tool for boring or cutting which fits into a drill.
The inboard end of a ship’s anchor chain that is secured in the chain locker.
A pattern showing boundaries of magnetic domains on the surface of a magnetic material, formed by applying a colloidal suspension of a magnetic powder. The particles accumulate where the domain boundaries intersect the surface.
An elastic cement used instead of paint to protect steel.
A naturally occurring viscous mixture, mainly of hydrocarbons heavier than Pentane, that may contain sulfur compounds and that, in its natural occurring viscous state, is not recoverable at a commercial rate through a well.
Black or dark colored tarry paint which contains bitumen. Used for the protection of exposed metal parts.
Flexible bag for transporting fuel, often slung beneath a helicopter.
Abbreviation for British Leyland
Of parts of castings and forgings not finished by machining, the dark coating of iron-oxide retained by the surface.
A flag which is waved at the finishing line in races to indicate the winner.
A body which completely absorbs any heat or light radiation falling upon it. A black body maintained at a steady temperature is a full radiator at that temperature, since any black body remains in equilibrium with the radiation reaching and leaving it. Also called complete radiator
Radiation that would be radiated from an ideal Black body.
The temperature at which a Black body would emit the same radiation as is emitted by a given radiator at a given temperature. The black-body temperature of carbon-arc crater is about 3500°C, whereas its true temperature is about 4000°C
A popular listings of the current car prices, based on age, condition, and optional equipment; published in the Kelly Black Book.
A recording device which reveals conditions just prior to a crash.
A control unit. A self-contained unit of electronic circuitry; not necessarily black. It should produce a defined output for a defined input without the operator needing to know its contents. Also called brain box
A signal without picture information
Black chromium plating
An electroplating deposit of a black chromium layer for decorative purposes.
Impure metal, carrying some iron, lead, and sulfur. Produced from copper ores by blast furnace reduction.
Tonal distortion in the picture whereby varying dark tones are all reproduced as black.
A flag which is colored black and is waved at a race. It indicates that the driver must return to his pit for consultation. It means that the driver has violated a serious racing rule such as spilling fluid on the track or was speeding on the pit road.
Black flag with orange circle
Black Flag With Orange Circle
As with the black flag for infractions, the black flag with orange circle means the driver must bring the car to the pits on the next lap. This flag indicates there is a serious mechanical problem with the car that can endanger the driver or others. Ignoring this black flag can bring severe penalties as it represents a dangerous situation.
A form of malleable iron, in which the core contains rosettes of graphite which appear as a dark area on fracture surfaces.
Carbonaceous material applied as a powder or wash to the internal surfaces of a mold to protect the sand and improve the finish of the casting. Prepared in a blacking mill.
Blacking a tape
Preparing a blank tape for the recording a black burst signal which lays down the video tracks and control track
A byproduct of the paper production process, alkaline spent liquor, that can be used as a source of energy. Alkaline spent liquor is removed from the digesters in the process of chemically pulping wood. After evaporation, the residual black liquor is burned as a fuel in a recovery furnace that permits the recovery of certain basic chemicals.
The structural, supporting inner sheetmetal of a body usually painted black.
Trade name for precursor to carbon fiber.
Black red heat
Temperature at which hot metal is just seen to glow in subdued daylight (about 540°C)
A mixture of sand and powdered coal forming the floor of an iron foundry.
A special hammer for hitting and shaping heated iron.
Incompletely burned fuel in the exhaust indicating the fuel mixture is too rich.
A power source’s ability to power up from a cold shut down condition to fully operational status through a dedicated auxiliary power source that is totally independent of external systems.
Tires which do not have any white or red coloring.
The black and white flag is used in some series to indicate unsportsmanlike conduct. This is typically held motionless next to a pit board with the car number on it. The driver may be penalized when this flag is shown
A hollow bag which can be inflated. In some instances, fuel tanks will become rusty inside. A possible cure is to install a bladder. This is done by Flushing out the rust chips, applying an acid solution to remove any oil/gas residue, and Coating the inside with a plastic Compound. When done correctly, this plastic Coating does not dissolve when it comes in contact with gasoline.
A straight narrow flat part like the end of a screwdriver or knife.
The part of a windshield wiper (Blade rubber) which contacts the windshield.
One of the vanes of a rotor or impeller.
The moving part of a knife-switch which carries the current and makes contact with the fixed jaws.
The capacity of a propeller blade for absorbing power, expressed as a non-dimensional function of the surface and by the formula where R is the diameter, and c is the blade chord at any radius r.
The angle between blade chord and plane of rotation at any radius. It is not constant because of the higher airspeed toward the tip, the incidence being progressively reduced to maintain optimum thrust. Change of blade angle from root to tip is called blade twist.
Region of fertile material surrounding the core in a breeder reactor in which neutrons coming from the core breed more fissile fuel, e.g., uranium-233 from thorium.
The lithium surrounding a fusion reactor core within which fusion neutrons are slowed down, heat is transferred to a primary coolant and tritium is bred from lithium.
A disk, or solid flange, used to blank off the end of a pipe.
Unmodulated groove on disk recording.
Blocking or disabling a circuit for a required interval of time.
Suppression of the picture information while the scanning spot of a cathode ray tube returns after each line, horizontal blanking, or after each field, vertical blanking, taking place during the blanking interval.
A flat piece of metal which closes off a tube. Also called a blanking plate
A flat piece of metal which closes off a tube. Also called a blanking piece
A rubber stopper for filling in the holes of sheetmetal such as drain holes in the floorpan.
Low-temperature evaporator which uses a fan to force air rapidly over the evaporator surface.
Vertical shaft furnace into the top of which ore mineral or scrap metal, fuel, and slag-forming rock (Flux) is charged. Air, sometimes oxygen-enriched and pre-heated, is blown through from below and products are separately tapped (slag higher and metal lower). Used to smelt iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, and other minerals.
A marked increase in amplitude distortion due to overloading the capacity of some part of a sound-reproducing system; e.g., attempt to exceed 100% depth of modulation in a radio transmitter, or break of continuity in carbon granules in a carbon transmitter.
The operation of disintegrating rock etc. by boring a hole in it, filling with gunpowder or other explosive charge, and firing it.
Compound designed to burn at a regulated speed when closed in a tube, used to ignite detonator or explode blasting charge. Types include safety (slow) and detonating (instantaneous).
The main blast air-pipes supplying air to a furnace
Device located in the smoke-box of a steam locomotive used to improve the draft through the fire-tubes. Exhaust steam passing from the nozzle of the blast pipe reduces smoke-box pressure and induces the draft.
First electrodynamically driven loudspeaker used for high-quality sound reproduction. It has a flat surface which is large compared to the wavelength of the radiated sound and it generates sound of high intensity.
A method of locating a fault on an electric cable; resistance measurements are taken with the far end of the cable free, and again with it grounded.
Temporary survey mark, such as slash on tree trunk, to guide prospector or explorer
Resistor placed across secondary of transformer to regulate its response curve, esp. when the transformer is not loaded with a proper terminating resistance. One placed in a power supply or rectifier circuit to control its regulation.
A hollow screw used to open a bleeder valve to allow fluid and air bubbles from a system like the brake system during a bleeding process.
A small hollow screw or valve found at drum brake wheel cylinders, in disc brake calipers, and adjacent to the outlet ports of some master cylinders. It is opened to release pressure and bleed air and fluid from the hydraulic system after reconditioning or in the event air has gotten into the system.
A cylinder which does not have a separate, detachable head. The cylinder and head are one unit, like a cup.
A method of inventory count that does not rely on the inventory database’s record of what is supposed to be in stock until after the whole inventory is counted.
The flying of an aircraft by a pilot who, because of darkness or poor visibility, must rely on the indication of instrument.
Blind flying instruments
A group of instruments, often on an individual central panel, essential for Blind flying. Commonly airspeed indicator, altimeter, vertical speed, turn-and-slip, artificial horizon, and directional gyro.
A type of rivet which can be clinched as well as placed by access to one side only of a structure. Usually based on a tubular or semitubular rivet design such as a Pop rivet, Chobert rivet, and Explosive rivet.
Right side of truck and trailer.
An area not visible from the driver’s seat. It is usually the area behind the rear quarter and not visible to the driver either through the windshield, side windows, or mirrors. When approaching another vehicle in a lane beside you, avoid being in its blind spot. Also do a shoulder check before switching lanes to check for vehicles in the blind spot.
Areas around a commercial vehicle that are not visible to the driver either through the windshield, side windows or mirrors.
Bright ornamentation (in chrome or gold plating) on a vehicle’s wheels, grill, moldings, trim and badges in order to give the impression of wealth and status.
A red taillight on a bicycle which has a switch which turns it to a steady light or a flashing (blinking) light
Modification of a loran transmission, so that a fluctuation in display indicates incorrect operation.
Spot on cathode-ray tube screen indicating radar function.
A bubble on a paint surface.
A localized bubble on the surface of a tire, normally caused by a separation between plies or between surface rubber and a ply.
A raised area on the surface of solid metal produced by the emanation of gas from within the metal while it is hot and plastic.
An intermediate product in the manufacture of copper. It is produced in a converter, contains 98.4-99.5% copper, and is subsequently refined to give commercial varieties, e.g., tough pitch, deoxidized copper.
The formation of bubbles on the paint surface.
Transparent, thin sheet of plastic thermoformed to cover product for display purposes. Also called bubble pack.
Wrought-iron bars impregnated with carbon by heating in charcoal. Before 1740 this was the only steel available, but is now obsolete.
Abbreviation for Block Learn Multiplier–a term replaced with Long Term Fuel Trim
A component in a synchromesh system which contains the internal cone. It separates the collar and gear, and prevents the dogs from engaging until all parts are precisely synchronized. When the shift fork engages the cones, the blocker ring shifts slightly so that its dogs prevent the sleeve from engaging the gear wheel. The shift lever resists any effort to push it into gear. When the speed of all three parts are synchronized, the blocker ring shifts again, allowing the sleeve to move forward and engage the aligned dogs on the blocker ring and gear.
A devices which, during very cold weather, keeps the engine warm when the vehicle is not being used — thus making cold starts easier. The free end is plugged into 110 volt AC wall socket. It is especially important for starting diesel engines at very low temperatures.
The process of using a wooden block wrapped in sandpaper to sand the material.
The length of track in a railway system that is limited by stop signals.
The system of controlling the movements of trains by signals and by independent communication between block posts, where the instruments indicating the position of trains, condition of the block sections, and controlling levers for signals, points, etc. are situated. It is absolute if one train alone is permitted within a block section, and permissive if trains are allowed to follow into a block section already occupied by a train.
The time elapsed from the moment an aircraft starts to leave its loading point to the moment when it comes to rest. It is an important factor in airline organization and scheduling. Also called chock-to-chock, buoy-to-buoy (seaplanes), flight time.
The amount of alcohol in the bloodstream as a result of drinking liquor.
Blood alcohol level
The amount of alcohol in the bloodstream as a result of drinking liquor.
Blood red heat
Dark red glow from heated metal, in temperature range 550°C – 630°C
A surface film on rubber, caused by the migration to the surface of sulfur, wax, or other unreacted ingredients of the compound. It may be protective to the tire and detrimental only if appearance is a major factor.
Semifinished metal, rectangular in cross-section and for steel not more than twice as long as it is thick. Compare Billet
Surface film on glass, the thin dielectric layers vacuum deposited on a lens to alter its reflectance properties, hence blooming
The film of sulfites and sulfates formed on glass during the annealing process.
The film on glass caused by weathering. Obsolete.
A formation of an undesired thin surface film or a milky white haze or mist on paintwork. It is caused when paint is applied during humid, cold conditions as moisture is trapped in the wet film.
Treatment of the glass-air surfaces of a lens with a deposit of magnesium fluoride or other substance, which reduces internal reflection and increase light transmission.
Spread of spot on cathode-ray tube phosphor due to excessive beam current.
Coating of dielectric surfaces to reduce reflection of electromagnetic waves.
The rolling mills used in reducing steel ingots to blooms. Called cogging mills in the UK, and not always distinguished from billet (slab) mills.
To become defective either by leaking or burning through.
In a Bessemer converter, passage of air through molten charge.
Because of a sticky valve or the intake valve closing late, some of the air-fuel mixture is blown back through the carburetor.
The return, at low speeds, of some of the induced mixture through the carburetor of a gasoline engine; due to the late closing of the intake valve during compression, or by worn or sticking valves.
The Mixture of fuel-air which escapes past the piston rings and causes fumes that form acid and Sludge in the crankcase and smoking from the oil filer hole. Generally there is a loss of engine power. Most are removed through the PCV system.
The Mixture of fuel-air which is lost past the piston rings and causes fumes that form acid and Sludge in the crankcase and smoking from the oil filer hole. Generally there is a loss of engine power. Most are removed through the PCV system.
The escape of gases between the opening of the exhaust valve and the piston reaching bottom dead center, or in a two-stroke engine between exhaust port opening and transfer port opening.
The difference between the opening and closing pressures of a relief/safety valve.
In a two-stroke engine, it is the time between the exhaust port opening and the transfer port opening which should be sufficiently long enough to allow time for the cylinder pressure to drop below the crankcase pressure, so that the exhaust gases can be expelled more easily.
Also called a supercharger or turbocharger. This is a pump which forces air into the cylinders at higher than atmospheric pressure. The increased pressure forces more air into the cylinders than what would be drawn in normally. In this way the engine can burn more fuel and thus produce more power. There are two main types of blowers the turbocharger, which uses some of the waste heat energy in the exhaust gases to drive a compressor and pump the air; and the belt-driven or shaft-driven supercharger which uses engine power to pump air.
A fan for an interior heating and ventilating system or even for an air-cooled engine.
A fan used to force air and/or gas under pressure.
A ring-shaped perforated pipe, encircling the top of the blast pipe in the smoke-box, to which steam is supplied while a steam engine is standing, the jets providing sufficient draft to keep the fire going.
An electric motor-driven fan which forces air through the evaporator and duct assembly, then forces the cooled air out of the duct work and circulates it through the vehicle passenger compartment.
Blower motor resistor
A device which regulates fan speed.
A paint spray gun with a wide nozzle which is fed by air pressure. It is used to blow out crevices in material that is otherwise hard to reach.
A gas-filled cavity in a solid metal. Usually formed by the trapping of bubbles of gas evolved during solidification, but may also be caused by steam generated at the mold surface, air entrapped by the incoming metal, or gas given off by inflammable mold dressing.
The current (DC or rms) which will cause a fuse link to melt.
The combined steam-engine or gas-engine and large reciprocating air-blower for supplying air to a blast furnace.
In early automobiles, a rubber bulb was attached to a long tube which ended in a reed (like a musical reed) attached to an horn shaped something like a bugle. When the bulb was pressed, air was sent down the tube, through the reed, and into the horn to make the noise. Blowing the horn was like blowing a musical horn. In modern vehicles electricity or compressed air causes the horn to blow.
A one-way valve that opens to the atmosphere above a certain set pressure to relieve excessive internal pressure buildup; often used with a turbocharger installation to limit Boost pressure to the engine. Also called Pressure-relief valve.
A permanent or electromagnet used to extinguish more rapidly the arc (in a switch, etc.) caused by breaking an electric circuit.
A respray of doubtful quality, often poorly prepared and carelessly masked.
Device through which air is blown in final stage of Blow molding. Usually ascends into base of descending Parison
Another term applied to the oxyacetylene torch.
A turbocharger system in which the turbocharger blows air through the carburetor(s) or fuel injector(s), i.e., the air and fuel mixing occurs downstream from the turbocharger.
A tool which is attached to a bottle of flammable gas. The gas is ignited to give an intense flame for brazing and soldering. The British term is blowlamp
Trucker slang for a Martin Truck company’s truck as in ‘Can I get a smokey report there Bluebird.’
The residue left after burning off the sulfur from iron sulfide ores.
A listing of the current prices for used cars, based on age, condition, and Optional equipment; published in the Kelly Blue Book. Available at banks, loan offices, libraries, and insurance companies.
Embrittlement of medium and high carbon steels during tempering in the range of 205°C – 315°C, so named because the surface of the steel becomes coated with blue colored oxidation film.
The blue or passing flag has different meanings depending on how it is held and whether it is used during practice, qualifying, or racing. Generally when it is held motionless it is an indication to a driver that there is a faster car following closely behind, but not yet close enough for a pass. A waving flag generally indicates that the driver is about to be overtaken and should take care to permit the following vehicle a safe pass. Some drivers resist moving over for an over-taking car when they feel they are racing for position. Controversy can follow the use of the passing flag. Some tracks use a blue flag with a diagonal yellow stripe.
Abbreviation for Brake mean effective pressure. The work accomplished during one engine cycle divided by the engine swept volume. It is essentially the engine torque normalized by the engine displacement. The word brake denotes the actual torque/power available at the engine flywheel as measured on a dynamometer. Thus, BMEP is a measure of the useful power output of the engine.
Abbreviation for ballistic missile early warning system. An over-the-horizon radar system for the detection of intercontinental ballistic missiles, with linked sites in the UK, Alaska, and Greenland.
Click image for books on
A German automobile and motorcycle manufacturer. Abbreviation for Bayerische Motoren Werke. A vehicle brand of which the pre-1948 models 327, 328, 327/328, and 335 are classic cars. The 507 models for 1957-59 are milestone cars. Modern automobile models include the following:
Abbreviation for British Nuclear Fuels. Organization involved in uranium enrichment, fabrication of fuel elements, reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel and production of plutonium. It also operates experimental reactors.
Trucker slang for a bumpy road as in ‘I don’t run 78 often cause it’s a real boardwalk.’
A cradle or support for a lifeboat.
A deck on which lifeboats are kept.
The rear of a car body with a tapered V-shaped back end like the upside-down prow of a boat. A common streamline effect used in early race cars, such as the Barchetta and Auburn. Also called Bateau shape
A hydraulic tool for pushing or pulling body panels into shape.
An alloy of lead and tin which is used to fill dents and seems in a body panel to establish a smooth surface. When heated it flows easily to fill the imperfections.
Similar to a frame-off restoration except the shell stays on the frame and components are removed, restored, and replaced one by one thus allowing the owner to drive the vehicle periodically.
The sheet metal that forms the outside body pieces.
A drawing showing frame lines in elevation.
A drawing showing the forms of the various cross sections, the curvature of the deck lines at the side, and the projections, as straight lines of the waterlines, the buttock lines, transverse elevations and the diagonal lines.
A malleable material designed to smooth on dented body areas, upon Hardening, the putty is dressed down and the area painted. Also called Bondo®.
A noise in the bodywork usually cased by loose parts, badly fitting doors, hood, fenders, or trunk lid.
The act of bring corroded or damaged panels back to like-new condition
The rocking or tilting motion of a vehicle when it goes around the corner.
A tar-like substance which is used to seal joints between panels
The bare skeleton of a vehicle with all the wheels, doors, hood, trunk lid, etc. removed.
A service outlet specializing in vehicle body repair work.
Body side molding
A protective stripe along each side of the vehicle running from the leading edge of the front fender, along the door panel(s) to the rear end of the back fender. It may be solid plastic or rubber attached directly to the panels while others are attached to a metal strip which in turn is attached to the panels.
A tool with a flat contoured working surface like a spoon. It is used to slap out dents and is sometimes used in place of a dolly when it is too difficult to reach behind the panel.
A decorative stripe applied to a motorcycle fuel tank or the outside of a car to enhance the appearance. Sometimes model names are also part of the stripes.
Body styling kit
An additional set of bolt-on parts (like spoilers, air dams, fender skirts, laker pipes, wings) which are intended to improve the looks, performance, and efficiency.
Long templates (usually made of wood, metal, or plastic) used for laying in different curvatures or radii to a full-sized drawing or clay model when designing a vehicle.
The bare body shell (minus the doors, trunk lid, hood, fenders) which is lowered onto the chassis at the time of assembly.
The complete body structure mounted on the chassis of a vehicle with a separate chassis, and the complete sheet metal panel for unibody vehicles.
A hesitation usually experienced when starting out.
A two-axle assembly at the rear of some trailers or tractors. Also called a tandem axle.
An assembly of four wheels on two axles with common suspension, usually on heavy commercial vehicles, trailers, and older Ski-Doos®
Assembly of two or more axles on a large truck, usually a pair in tandem
A small vehicle with a short wheelbase running on rails. Commonly used for the conveyance of coal or ore.
A British term for a four-wheel or six-wheel undercarriage of short wheelbase, which forms a pivoted support at one or both ends of a long rigid vehicle such as a locomotive or coach. Also called bogie truck. The US term is truck
Also spelled bogey
Bogie landing gear
A main landing gear carrying a pair or pairs of wheels in tandem and pivoted at the end of the shock strut or Oleo. This arrangement helps to spread the weight of an aircraft over a larger area and also allows the wheel size to be minimized for easier stowage after retraction.
One of the suspension wheels on an older Ski-Doo®.
The process of change from a liquid to a gas through the application of heat.
Closed container in which a liquid may be heated and vaporized.
One of a wide range of pressure vessels in which water or other fluid is heated and then discharged, e.g., either as hot water for heating or as high-pressure steam for power generation.
A device for generating steam for power, processing, or heating purposes; or hot water for heating purposes or hot water supply. Heat from an external combustion source is transmitted to a fluid contained within the tubes found in the boiler shell. This fluid is delivered to an end-use at a desired pressure, temperature, and quality.
The weight of steam, usually expressed in kilograms or pounds per hour, which a boiler can evaporate when steaming at full load output.
Blocks and braces to prevent the movement of boilers.
Chemicals introduced into boiler feed-water to inhibit scale-formation and corrosion, or to prevent priming or foaming. Examples are sodium compounds (such as soda ash), organic matter and barium compounds.
Obsolete term for the equivalent of the heating capacity of 33,475 BTU/hr (9804 watts)
Hammer with ball or straight and cross panes; used for caulking, fullering, and scaling boilers.
Mild steel plate, generally produced by the open-hearth process; used mainly for the shells and drums of steam-boilers. Latterly steel with a higher yield stress is frequently specified.
The pressure at which steam is generated in a boiler. It may vary from little over atmospheric pressure for heating purposes, to 1500 lb-in -2 (10000 kNm -2 ) and over for high-pressure turbines.
A hard coating, chiefly calcium sulfate, deposited on the surfaces of plates and tubes in contact with the water in a steam boiler. If excessive, it leads to overheating of the metal and ultimate failure.
The supporting structure on which a boiler rests; usually of brick for land boilers and of steel for marine boilers.
Screwed rods or tubes provided to support the flat surfaces of a boiler against the bursting effect of internal pressure.
A hydraulic-pressure test applied to check watertightness under pressure greater than the working pressure.
An efficiency test carried out to determine evaporative capacity and the magnitude of losses.
An efficiency test of a steam boiler, in which the weight of feed water and of fuel burnt are measured, and various sources of loss assessed.
The very rapid conversion of a liquid into vapor by the violent evolution of bubbles. It occurs when the temperature reaches such a value that the saturated vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure of the atmosphere.
The exact temperature at which a liquid begins to boil or changes to a gas or vapor (i.e., Vaporizes). The boiling point of a liquid decreases with increasing altitude, and increases with pressurization. The coolant in a modern radiator/coolant system can be as high as 127°C.
The temperature at which a liquid boils when exposed to the atmosphere. Since at the boiling point the saturated vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure of the atmosphere, the boiling point varies with pressure; it is usual, therefore, to state its value at the standard pressure of 101.325kNm-2.
The temperature and pressure at which a liquid converts to a vapor. In physics, this point is defined as the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere on the liquid, which is equal to 100°C at sea level (101.3 kPa).
A device for measuring microwave or infrared energy, consisting of a temperature-dependent resistance used in a bridge circuit which gives an indication when incident energy heats the resistor. Used for indication when incident energy heats the resistor. Used for power measurement, standing-wave detectors and infrared search and guidance systems.
A supporting brace.
The act of supporting.
A steel block which supports the lower part of the die in a pressing or punching machine.
The rocking steel frame by which the bogie supports the weight of a locomotive or other rolling stock (i.e., railway car).
A securing device upon which a nut is threaded. It usually has a nut-type head. It is usually measured not so much by the size of the wrench required to secure the bolt; but by the diameter of the threads, the thread pitch, the length of the bolt under the head, and the strength of the bolt. A bolt is similar to a machine screw except that a bolt is usually secured with a wrench instead of a screwdriver.
A pair of objects with matching screw threads. When either the bolt or the nut is turned, it moves with great force. Often used as fixing devices. The nut is the circular piece that looks like a ring with threads on the inside hole. The bolt is the shaft with threads.
A vehicle which is in very poor shape, ‘The car is a bomb and not worth a nickel.’ In contrast, it can also mean a vehicle which has great acceleration, ‘The car flew down the track like a bomb.’
Process of directing a beam of neutrons or high-energy charged particles onto a target material in order to produce nuclear reactions.
An apparatus used for determining the calorific values of solid or liquid fuels. The bomb consists of a thick-walled, highly polished, steel vessel in which a weighed quantity of the fuel is electrically ignited in an atmosphere of compressed oxygen. The bomb is immersed in a known volume of water to which the combustion heat is transferred, and from the rise of temperature of which the calorific value is calculated.
Device for obtaining samples of dispersed particles at predetermined depths within a suspension, consisting of a closed cylindrical vessel with an automatic valve which opens when an extension tube hits the bottom of the suspension container. The sampler fills with suspension and then closes when the vessel is lifted.
A state of adhesion.
The act of connecting two components by means of a glue or adhesive or to cause them to adhere
The junction of the weld metal and the base metal
The grip exerted by one material on another.
The attachment between two surfaces that have been joined.
The adhesion between concrete and its reinforcing steel, due partly to the shrinkage of the concrete in setting and partly to the natural adhesion between the surface particles of steel and concrete.
Link between atoms, considered to be electrical and arising from the distribution of electrons around the nuclei of bonded atoms.
The adherence of snow or ice to the road surface, creating a composite that is stronger than the snow or ice itself
A government approved storage center and under bond or guarantee for observance of revenue laws.
A storage center for goods waiting until duty is paid or are released in some other proper manner.
Enameled insulated wire coated with thin plastic; after forming a coil, it is heated by a current or in an oven or both for the plastic to set and the coil to attain a solid permanent form.
The electrical interconnection of metallic parts of an aircraft normally at ground potential for the safe distribution of electrical charges and currents. Protects against charges due to precipitation, static and electrostatic induction due to lightning strikes. Reduces interference and provides a low-resistance electrical return path for current in ground-return systems.
Joining structural parts by adhesive. May be performed at high temperature and pressure.
A clip used in wiring systems to make connection between the grounded metal sheath of different parts of the wiring, in order to ensure continuity of the sheath
A procedure of joining two components with adhesive.
The time during which a satisfactory bond can be made. It is usually expressed in two numbers, the first number being the time in minutes one must wait after applying adhesive before trying to bond the surfaces, and the latter number being the longest drying period within which satisfactory bonds can be made, usually ten to 30 minutes after applying the adhesive.
The minimum length of reinforcing bar required to be embedded in concrete to ensure that the bond develops the full stress in the bar.
A hard, raised longitudinal peak in the sheetmetal, usually along the side of the car body and sharper and higher than a character line
A survey term describing the process of locating and driving in pegs so that they are in line and have their tops also in line; carried out by sighting between a near and a far peg previously set in the gradient desired.
T-shaped rods used, in sets of three, to facilitate the process of Boning-in, two of the rods are held on the near and far pegs to establish a line of sight between them in the desired gradient, while the third is used to fix intermediate pegs in line.
A term used to describe a condition experienced when running out of energy while riding a bicycle or running.
British term for vehicle hood to cover the front engine bay.
A wire-netting cowl covering the top of a ventilating pipe or chimney.
A movable protecting cover or cap of the valve-box of a pump.
The amount of positive pressure created in an Intake system above normal atmospheric pressure by a turbocharger or supercharger. Normal atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi. A Blower providing 10 psi boost increases the pressure to 24.7 psi. Boost is sometimes measured in atmospheres where one atmosphere equals 14.7 psi. Thus 24.7 psi is about 1.7 atmospheres.
On a turbocharged engine, a system which retards the ignition timing when the intake manifold is under pressure, in order to reduce the chance of detonation.
A device regulating reciprocating-engine manifold pressure so that supercharged engines are not over-stressed at low altitude.
Boost-controlled deceleration device
(BCDD) A valve that, during deceleration, is triggered into action by high intake manifold vacuum the BCDD valve allows an additional source of air and fuel to enter the intake manifold during deceleration to obtain a more burnable mixture.
In a supercharged piston aero-engine fitted with Boost control, a device (sometimes lightly wire-locked so that its emergency use can be detected), which allows the normal maximum manifold pressure to be exceeded. Also called boost control cut-out
A radio device which amplifies the signal or the audio output to the speakers. Because of its size it is mounted in the glovebox, under the instrument panel, in the center console, under the seat, or in the trunk.
A device incorporated in vehicle system (such as brakes and steering), to increase the pressure output or decrease amount of effort required to operate, or both.
A common term applied to the case of a compressor when used as the first stage in the cascade refrigerating system.
A rocket engine, or cluster of engines, forming part of a launch system, either the first stage or auxiliary stage, used to provide an initial thrust greater than the total lift-off weight. Also called booster rocket.
A recommended seat for children who have outgrown a child safety seats. Children who fit that description should be properly restrained in booster seats in the back seat until they are at least 8 years old or more than 145cm tall. A booster seat positions a child so a safety belt can fit correctly. Without a booster seat, a small child can be ejected from a vehicle in a crash.
Station which rebroadcasts a received transmission directly on the same wavelength
A transformer connected in series with a circuit to raise or lower the voltage of the circuit.
Booster vacuum runout point
The point at which a Vacuum booster is supplying the maximum amount of power assist possible. Any additional braking force must be applied at the brake pedal.
A small venturi located immediately above and concentric with the main venturi in a carburetor. Boosters are designed to amplify the weak venturi vacuum signal that occurs during low airflow conditions.
Pressure in the intake system of a supercharged engine when the supercharger operates. See the first definition of Boost.
Voltage conversion device used to raise the voltage in a DC system.
A sensing device in a supercharger. It is located in the choke tube which sends a signal to the ignition control unit according to pressure conditions. In turn, the control unit adjusts the ignition timing for the best performance.
The rubber or plastic cover located at either end of the spark plug cable to insulate the connections between the cable ends and the spark plug and distributor terminal. Always grasp the cable by the boot when removing it.
A simple protective device (sometimes a piece of tube, tire, etc., cut to size) placed between the casing and tube. It offers temporary protection for the tube against pinching by an injury in the casing. It is not a repair of the injury and is unsafe to use.
A covering over the lowered convertible top. It may be flexible (canvas or vinyl) or rigid (fiberglass or metal). Also called a top boot
A Denver boot, which is a device which clamps on the wheels of a parked car to immobilize it. Also called a Heavy yellow boot.
A colloquial term for the action of going very fast as in, We were booting along as fast as the snowmobile would go.
To accelerate rapidly as in, When the light turns green, boot it.
A self-sustaining system in liquid rocket engines by which the main propellants are transferred by a turbo-pump which is driven by hot gases. In turn the gas generator is fed by propellants from the pump.
A feedback circuit in which part of the output is fed back across the input giving effectively infinite input impedance and unity gain. Often used to improve the linearity of a voltage sweep generator.
The diameter of the cylinders. It is usually measured in either inches or millimetres. When a cylinder is bored out because of scored walls, it is increased by ten thou of an inch (0.01′) or 0.25 mm.
The relation between the diameter of the cylinder bore and the length of the stroke of the piston. If the stroke is longer than the cylinder bore diameter then the engine is called a Long stroke engine. If the stroke is shorter than the cylinder bore diameter then the engine is called a Short stroke engine. If the stroke is the same as the distance of the cylinder bore diameter then the engine is called a Square engine
Click image for books on
A German automobile manufacturer which began by Carl F. W. Borgward in 1921.
The process of machining a cylindrical hole, performed in a lathe, boring machine, or boring mill; for large holes, or when great accuracy is required, it is preferable to using a drill.
Renewing the cylinders by cutting them out to a specified size, a Boring bar is used to make the cut.
A machine with a stiff bar that has multiple cutting bits used to cut engine cylinders to a specific size. As used in garages, to cut worn cylinders to a new diameter or bearing bores in proper alignment with each other.
A machine on which boring operations are performed, comprising a head, carrying a driving-spindle, and a table to support the work.
A vertical boring machine in which the boring bar is fixed, the work being carried by the rotating table.
The cutting tool used in boring operations. It is held in a Boring bar
An approximation used in considering the electronic behavior of molecules. The problems of the electronic and nuclear motion are treated separately.
Counter tube containing boron fluoride, or boron-covered electrodes, for the detection and counting of low-velocity neutrons, which eject α-particles from the isotope boron-10. Also called boron counter.
Excavation which provides material to serve as fill when required.
Boron fiber coated with silicon carbide
The tapering portion of a Blast furnace, between the largest diameter (at the bottom of the stack) and the smaller diameter (at the top of the hearth).
An extension or strengthened section or projection (usually cylindrical) that holds the end of a pin or shaft. For example, the holes in the piston through which the Piston pin is placed would easily break the thin walls of the piston when under pressure. The area around the hole (on the inner side of the piston) are strengthened to prevent breakage. This area is the Piston boss.
The curved swelling portion of the ship’s hull around the propeller shaft.
Bicycle component that is inserted into the bottom bracket shell. The bottom bracket consists of the crank axle (bottom bracket spindle), ball bearings, and (in older style bottom brackets) a fixed cup and an Adjustable cup. Crankarms are bolted to the bottom bracket.
A term used in connection with the Orford process for nickel and copper which have separated as sulfides. When the mixed sulfides are fused with sodium sulfide, the nickel sulfide separates to the bottom. Hence bottoms as distinct from tops.
In reverberatory furnace, the heavier molten material at the bottom of pool.
In a thermosyphon water-cooling system, this is the bottom radiator tank.
An arrangement of inductances and capacitances, whereby a constant-circuit supply is obtained from a constant-voltage circuit.
A hollow plug or bushing inserted in watch or clock plates to form the pivot holes.
Bouguer law of absorption
Law stating that the intensity p of a parallel beam of monochromatic radiation entering an absorbing medium is decreased at a constant rate by each infinitesimally thin layer db, i.e., -dp/p = kdb where k is a constant that depends on the nature of the medium and on the wavelength
Trucker slang for interstate highway as in ‘Once we hit the boulevard we can put some miles behind us.’
When referring to valves, it indicates a condition where the valve is not held tightly closed in the seat even though the camshaft has not opened it. Also called Flutter or Valve bounce
When referring to a distributor, it indicates a condition where the points make erratic contact when they should remain closed.
A film of one constituent of an alloy surrounding the crystals of another.
The thin layer of fluid (air) adjacent to the surface in which viscous forces exert a noticeable influence on the motion of the fluid and in which the transition between still air and the body’s velocity occurs.
Boundary layer control
Modification of the airflow in the Boundary layer to increase lift and/or decrease drag by various means:
removal of the boundary layer by sucking through slots or porous surfaces
use of vortex generators to re-energize sluggish surface flow
ejection of high-speed air through slits
blowing, by propulsion efflux, over wing surfaces
Boundary layer noise
The noise occurring at high speeds due to the oscillations in the turbulent boundary layer at many frequencies and heard in cockpit and cabin.
Lights defining the boundary of the landing area.
A state of partial lubrication which may exist between two surfaces in the absence of a fluid oil film, due to the existence of adsorbed mono-molecular layers of lubricant on the surfaces.
The induced static charge which is bound by the presence of the charge of opposite polarity which induces it. Also, in a dielectric, the charge arising from polarization. Also called surface charge.
Electrons in the inner orbits around the nucleus of the atom, they are difficult to move out of orbit.
Quantum mechanical state of a system in which the energy is discrete and the wavefunction is localized, e.g., that of an electron in an atom, where transitions between the bound states give rise to atomic spectral lines.
A circular, hollow piece of thin metal tubing that is used in some instruments, pressure on the hollow section causes it to attempt to straighten, the free end then moves a Needle on the gauge face. Used in pressure gauges.
A sliding type of current collector, used on electric vehicles to collect the current from an overhead contact-wire. It consists of a bow-shaped contact strip, mounted on a hinged framework.
A flexible strip of whalebone or cane, the ends of which are drawn together to give tension to a thread or line which is given a single turn around a pulley of a pair of turns, drill, or mandrel. It is used as a sensitive drive for these tools and was used traditionally for the making of accurate holes, esp. for clock pivots.
A form of protective system for feeders, in which special cables, with the cores surrounded by metallic sheaths, are employed; a fault causes current to flow in the sheath and operate a relay to trip the circuit.
A rule for the adjustment of closed compass traverses, in which it may reasonably be assumed that angles and sides are equally liable to error in measurement. According to this rule, the correction in latitude (or departure) of any line = (Length of that line divided by Perimeter of traverse) times Total error in latitude (or departure)
(BV) Connects the float bowl to the carburetor’s air inlet. Depressurizes the fuel being pumped into the float bowl by the fuel pump and acts as a vapor separator by allowing vapors in the float bowl to escape into the carburetor air inlet. Bowl vents are cut at a 45-deg angle and face incoming air so that reference pressure remains the same regardless of airflow.
A tanker used for refueling military ground vehicles or airplanes.
A spar projecting forward from the bow of a vessel used to attach sails and stays.
An arched bridge in which the horizontal thrust on the arch is taken by a horizontal tie joining the two ends of the arch.
A form of suspension for the overhead contact-wire of an electric-tramway system, in which the contact-wire is suspended from a short cross-wire attached to the bracket-arm of the pole.
A propeller at the bow of the ship, used during maneuvering to provide transverse thrust.
The wave disturbance emanating from the leading edge of an object moving through fluid, esp. the V-shaped surface wave associated with boats moving through water.
A vehicle in very bad shape. A dog.
A vehicle in very bad shape. A dog.
A description of a vehicle shape in which each section is a box. For instance in a sedan, the engine section is the front box, the passenger compartment is the middle box, and the trunk is the third box–thus a sedan is a three-box configuration. A station wagon or SUV is a two-box. A minivan is a one-box.
Cracked areas of the pavement are milled out and filled with asphalt concrete. This type of repair may be performed on up to 20% of the pavement surface. A ‘train’ approach is used with a machine to mill out the broken areas, a grader and skid steer to remove the old material, a paving machine to place the new material, a roller for compaction, etc. Several days may be spent to perform this treatment on a mile of roadway. The work is often followed by the application of a surface treatment.
A closed panel structure of square cross section which is used to strengthen a vehicle’s underbody.
Box Section Construction
A construction formed of two U-channels joined together to create a long box. It is used in frames where greater strength is required than is provided by a U-channel.
A British term for a hollow tube with a socket at each end and two holes through which a bar can be inserted to turn the wrench. The bar is called a T-bar; but the British call it a Tommy bar
A single-point cutting tool, set radially or tangentially, used in automatic screw machines and in capstan and turret lathes.
Law of physics which states that the volume of a gas varies as pressure varies, if temperature remains the same. Example, if absolute pressure is doubled on the quantity of gas, the volume is reduced one half. If the volume becomes doubled, the gas has its pressure reduced by half.
Temperature at which the second viral coefficient of a gas changes sign. Close to this temperature, Boyle’s law provides a good approximation to the equation of the state of the gas.
A low-cost car without much sophistication or performance; but it does have a very sleek and sporty appearance.
A camera for photographing lightning flashes, gyrating lenses separating the strokes.
Trucker slang for State police as in ‘There’s a bunch of boyscouts waiting for you at the 157.’
The center body pillar on sedans. It connect the sills and provides roof support. Sometimes referred to as simply post, as in 1957 Chevy two-door post. On a true Hardtop design these pillars are missing, leaving uninterrupted glass area along the sides of the car. Also called B-post.
The center body post on sedans. It connect the sills and provides roof support. Sometimes referred to as simply post, as in 1957 Chevy two-door post. On a true Hardtop design these pillars are missing, leaving uninterrupted glass area along the sides of the car. Also called B-pillar.
A support beam to give reinforcement between two objects.
A member connecting two nodes of a structure out of plane with the main members, for stiffening purposes. Depending on the applied loads it may be subject to tensile or compressive forces. Also called swaybrace.
A unit installed in the brake system to hold Brake line pressure when the vehicle is stopped on an upgrade, when the vehicle is stopped on the upgrade and the brake pedal released, the anti-roll device will keep the brakes applied until either the clutch is released or as on some models, the accelerator is depressed.
An assembly of the non-rotational components of a brake including its mechanism for development of friction forces.
Brake backing plate
Brake backing plate
A rigid metal (steel) plate, located inside the Brake drum, on which the wheel cylinder, brake shoes, and other brake parts are mounted. The braking force applied to the shoes is absorbed by the backing plate.
The ratio of front-to-rear braking force.
The split of braking power between the front and rear axles. Proper brake balance allows the driver to use the full braking ability at all four wheels when stopping the car.
A flexible circular metal band which surrounds a brake drum and contracts around it to create the friction necessary to stop the vehicle. The rubbing surface of a brake band is faced with a brake lining material.
The front/rear distribution of a vehicle’s braking power. For the shortest stopping distance, Brake bias should match the vehicle’s traction at each end during hard braking brake modulation — the process of varying pedal pressure to hold a vehicle’s brakes on the verge of Lockup. Ideally, the brakes will unlock with only a slight reduction in the pressure needed to lock them. Typically, however, a considerable pressure reduction is required.
A valve attached to each wheel brake. This valve can be opened and closed to allow air to be removed or bled from the Brake lines.
A mechanical device which attaches to the brake system to multiply the force the driver applies with his foot (or hand as in the case of a motorcycle). The device uses air, vacuum, or hydraulic fluid to accomplish this purpose. Sometimes called power assisted brakes, vacuum assisted brakes, hydraulically assisted brakes, or just Power brakes. In most cars, the Boost comes from engine Intake vacuum. In motorcycles it comes from hydraulic fluid.
A device using a supplementary power source to reduce pedal (or lever) force in a hydraulic brake system.
An arch (usually built from aluminum or carbon fiber) which attaches to the brake bosses of a bicycle in conjunction with the brake. The powerful braking force of V-Brakes or linear pull brakes can cause frames and forks to flex and waste energy which could have been applied to the rims. The booster acts as a brace to prevent frame flex induced during braking.
The brazed-on pivots attached to frames and forks for cantilever and V style brakes. Shift lever bosses are brazed-on pivots for down-tube-mounted shift levers. Most newer ‘road’ bicycles have the shifters mounted on the handlebars, so they use the old-style lever bosses as attachment points for housing stops.
A wire cable which activates the brakes. Used on motorcycles, trailers, and automobile parkbrakes.
A wound steel cable running from the brake levers of a bicycle to the brake calipers.
Brake cable housing
The outer, colored housing into which a brake cable is inserted.
The component of a disc brake that converts hydraulic pressure into mechanical energy.
The device in a disc brake that converts hydraulic pressure back into the mechanical force used to apply the brake pads against the rotor.
A braking system that instead of using the conventional Brake drum with internal brake shoes, uses a steel disc with caliper type lining application, when the brakes are applied, a section of lining on each side of the spinning disc is forced against the disc thus imparting a braking force. This type of brake is very resistant to Brake fade.
Failure of the brakes to release completely when the driver’s foot is removed from the pedal.
A Cast iron or AluminumHousing bolted to the wheel, that rotates around the brake shoes. When the shoes are expanded, they rub against the machined inner surface of the brake drum and exert a braking effect upon the wheel to slow or stop the vehicle. In some cases an external band surrounds the drum to reduce the motion of the wheel.
The rotating cylindrical component of a drum brake system on which the brake shoes act to slow or stop the vehicle.
The total inability of the brakes to function. May be caused by worn out pads or shoes, broken hydraulic lines, broken cable or other linkage, non-functioning master cylinder, low or empty brake fluid reservoir, etc.
A discernible, to the driver, relationship between the amount of brake pedal pressure and the actual braking force being exerted. A special device is incorporated in Power brake installations to give the driver this feel.
A special fluid used in Hydraulic brake systems to stop or slow the vehicle. Never use something else in place of regular fluid. Brake fluid must be resistant to heating, freezing, and thickening. There are four types of brake fluid on the market.
A unit in a hydraulic brake system which indicates the amount of brake fluid.
Brake fluid level warning switch assembly
A unit used to actuate a warning device indicating a reservoir fluid level lower than a preset value.
Brake fluid reservoir
In an automobile, it is a translucent tank located in front of the master cylinder. It usually has two chambers containing brake fluid. In a motorcycle, it may be found on the handlebar (for the front brake) or near the back of the bike (for the rear brake).
Brake fluid warning light
Indicator light located in the instrument cluster used to indicate a problem in the brake hydraulic system.
A hand-operated lever which, when actuated, causes the brake(s) to be applied.
A plastic, rubber, or leather covering mounted around the brake levers to keep out the dust and to provide a non-abrasive placement for the hands during cycling
(bhp) A measurement of the actual usable power (not calculated power) measured at the output shaft (usually the crankshaft) rather than at the driveshaft or the wheels. Thus none of the auxiliaries (gearbox, generator, alternator, differential, water pump, etc.) are attached. It is called the brake horsepower because the shaft power is usually measured by an absorption dynamometer or brake. This is not the brake on the vehicle’s wheels but a testing device applied to the shaft. This instrument is applied to stop or absorb the rotation of the output shaft and returns a value. One bhp = 746W or (approx) 3 bhp = 4kW.
A flexible high-pressure hose that is reinforced. It connects between the brake pipes and the brake assembly. It needs to be flexible because of the constant movement of the suspension.
Brake hose coupler
A separable mechanical connector for a brake hose between the towing and the towed vehicle.
A condition where the brake pads make intermittent contact because of a worn rotor. It sounds and feels like rapid vibration. It is also the normal condition in an ABS brake system when the brake is applied (often to the surprise of the driver) as the ABS system rapidly engages and disengages the pressure of the brake pads on the rotor.
The machine used to resurface the friction surfaces of brake discs or drums.
A machine used to refinish brake drums and disc brake rotors.
A blade attached to the right side of a motorcycle handlebar which usually activates the front brake.
A device for activating the park brake.
A curved blade found on either side of a bicycle handlebar which activates the front or rear brakes.
A system of hoses and metal tubes through which the brake fluid flows from the master cylinder to the brake calipers at each wheel. Cracks or breaks in these lines will cause the fluid to leak out and result in loss of brakes.
A heat-resistant friction material (usually asbestos) that is attached to the brake shoe (either riveted or bonded). When the shoe is pressed against the Brake drum, the lining grabs the inside of the drum, which stops the vehicle and also prevents the drum and the shoe from wearing each other away.
A special friction material with which brake shoes or brake pads are lined. It withstands high temperatures and pressures. The molded material is either riveted or bonded to the brake shoe, with a suitable coefficient of friction for stopping a vehicle.
The average pressure in the cylinders of an engine divided by its mechanical efficiency, i.e., the ratio of the power actually delivered at an output shaft to the power developed in the cylinders. It is used as an indication of torque.
That part of the Indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) developed in an engine cylinder output equal to the brake horsepower of the engine; the product of IMEP and mechanical efficiency.
The work accomplished during one engine cycle divided by the engine swept volume. It is essentially the engine torque normalized by the engine displacement. The word brake denotes the actual torque/power available at the engine flywheel as measured on a dynamometer. Thus, BMEP is a measure of the useful power output of the engine.
Brake Metering Valve
Click image to supersize
Brake metering valve
In order to insure that the back drum brakes apply at about the same time as the front discs and that the drum brakes do an equal amount of work during light stopping, a metering valve is placed in the line to the disc brakes. The metering valve prevents brake fluid movement to the discs until a specified number of psi has been built up in the system. By the time the system pressure reaches this point, the force of the heavy drum brake shoe retracting springs has been overcome, and the shoes are starting to contact the drum. The metering valve then opens and allows fluid pressure to apply the disc brakes. No residual pressure is maintained in the front disc system.
Automotive Brake pad
The friction material or lining which is secured to metal plates. They press against the Brake disc or rotor to enable the wheel to stop. They are to be distinguished from brake shoes which press against the inside of a Drum.
Bicycle Brake Pad
On a bicycle, brake pads are blocks of rubber-like material fastened to the end of the brake caliper; they press against the wheel rim when the brakes are applied. Also called brake block. Sometimes the term brake pad refers to both the pad and the metal backing.
A device which detects the thickness of the brake pad by using an L-shaped strap which will scrape against the disc when the pad thickness is below tolerance. Others use an electrical circuit in which a worn pad closes an electrical circuit that illuminates a light on the instrument panel.
Parachute attached to the tail of some high-performance aircraft and streamed as a brake for landing. Sometimes a ribbon canopy is used for greater strength and on large aircraft a cluster of two or three is required to give sufficient area with convenient stowage. Also called landing parachute and parabrake.
Click image to supersize
A foot operated device which engages the brakes to stop or slow the rotation of the wheels.
On a motorcycle, pressure from the brake lever (when squeezed) forces the brake fluid to flow from the master cylinder down through the brake line and into the caliper. The pressure of the brake fluid causes the piston to push the brake pad to rub against the disc, thus stopping movement of the motorcycle.
Brake piston tool
Brake piston tool
A disk brake tool used to rotate the piston back into the caliper when replacing pads
A valve that limits braking force to the front or rear wheels, usually as a function of pedal effort or line pressure, loading of the vehicle or front-rear weight transfer, to prevent wheel locking and provide the most effective braking.
An auxiliary energy conversion system used to supplement the Service brake unit on a moving vehicle.
A long rod which connects between the brake pedal and the brake actuating lever.
The Brake disc which is attached to the wheel and is surrounded by a brake caliper.
That part of the brake system, located at the wheels, upon which the Brake lining is attached. There are usually two shoes (curved or arc-shaped pieces) in each wheel. When the wheel cylinders are actuated by hydraulic pressure they force the brake shoes apart and bring the lining into contact with the Brake drum. In this way the vehicle is slowed or stopped. On a bicycle, it is the metal part that holds a Brake pad and is bolted to the end of a brake caliper.
A crescent-shaped (for drum brakes) or a square/rectangular (for disc brakes) piece of metal faced with brake lining material and forced against the revolving drum or disc to create friction. In a disc brake system, the brake shoe may be called a brake pad.
A grinder used to grind brake shoe lining so that it will be square to and Concentric with the Brake drum.
Brake shoe heel
That end of the brake shoe closest to the Anchor bolt or pin.
Brake shoe hold-downs
Spring-loaded retainers that hold brake shoes against the backing plate.
Brake shoe return spring
A spring which is attached to the two brake shoes. After the brake is applied, this spring pulls the shoes away from the drum.
The components of a drum brake assembly that are surfaced with brake lining and forced against the brake drum to generate friction.
Brake shoe toe
The free end of the shoe, it is not attached to or resting against an Anchor pin.
A condition where the brake pads make intermittent contact because of a worn rotor. It sounds and feels like rapid vibration. It is also the normal condition in an ABS brake system when the brake is applied (often to the surprise of the driver) as the ABS system rapidly engages and disengages the pressure of the brake pads on the rotor.
The act of retarding a motor vehicle between two positive speed values by the use of a brake system
Brake snubbing time
Time elapsed during a brake snub from the start of brake application to the instant the lower speed value is reached.
Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
(BSFC) The ratio of the engine fuel consumption to the engine power output (as measured at the flywheel). BSFC has units of grams of fuel per kilowatt-hour (g/kWh) or pounds mass of fuel per brake horsepower-hour (lb/bhp-hr). BSFC is a measure of engine efficiency.
The distance traveled between the start of brake application and the instant at which a specified brake system pressure is obtained
Brake system actuation time
The time elapsed between the start of brake application and the instant at which a specified brake system pressure is obtained
Brake system cleaner
A type of solvent designed exclusively for cleaning brake system components. It will not destroy plastic, rubber, or synthetic rubber components and it dries quickly, without leaving a residue.
A testing procedure which determines the efficiency of a vehicle’s brakes in order to pass safety tests.
Brake thermal efficiency
The efficiency of an engine reckoned in terms of the brake horsepower; given by the ratio of the heat equivalent of the brake output to the heat supplied to the engine in the fuel or steam.
Brake thermo efficiency
The ratio of the useful power output of an engine to the fuel energy per unit time.
A procedure generally used in performance tests to improve the off-the-line acceleration of a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission. It is executed by firmly depressing the brake with the left foot, applying the throttle with the vehicle in gear to increase engine rpm, then releasing the brakes. Brake torquing is particularly effective with turbocharged cars because it helps overcome Turbo lag.
An indicator light on the instrument panel which indicates problems such as low fluid level in the brake fluid reservoir, a malfunction in any of the hydraulic brake circuits, or excessive wear of the brake pads or shoes. It also illuminates when the parkbrake is applied. When the ignition is first started, the light will illuminate momentarily to show that the light is working.
A term used in connection with electrical installation work to denote a switch of any type for controlling the current in a branch circuit.
A refined petroleum product sold by a refiner with the understanding that the purchaser has the right to resell the product under a trademark, trade name, service mark, or other identifying symbol or names owned by such refiner.
A series of identifying numbers and letters which some companies burn into the sidewall rubber of a truck tire to show their initials, mounting date, etc.
A Brazilian communications satellite system
An alloy of copper and zinc, but other elements such as aluminum, iron, manganese, nickel, tin, and/or lead are frequently added. There are numerous varieties. It is non-magnetic with good strength and toughness, high electrical conductivity, and an attractive lustrous finish. It has good corrosion resistance but not in salt water. Brass is commonly used by the electrical and communications industries, builders hardware, and some marine applications.
A vehicle built prior to 1915 sometimes called the brass era because of the widespread use of fancy brass fittings and brass lanterns that were a natural addition to the new ‘horseless carriage.’ The Brass era lasted from around 1905 to 1914. This was the beginning of mass produced affordable vehicles for the common public rather than the domain of the elite. Also called an Antique car
Those parts of a bearing which provide a renewable wearing surface; they consist of a sleeve or bored block of brass split diametrically, the two halves being clamped into the bearing block by a cap.
A hammer with a brass head which is used to pound steel pins etc. into place without damaging them because the brass head is softer than steel.
A Drift or punch made of brass which is used to remove bushings and bearing races because brass does not score or mark steel.
A model of an SUV automobile built by Oldsmobile from 1991-2004
A constant-pressure cycle of operations used in gas turbines.
To join two pieces of metal together by heating the edges to be joined and then melting drops of brass or bronze on the area. Unlike welding, this operation is similar to soldering, except a higher melting point material is used.
Parts for mounting shift levers, cable guides, pump pegs, chain hangers, front and rear eyelets, derailleurs, water bottle Cages, and racks, which are fastened to a bicycleframe through a type of Soldering process known as brazing.
The action of a wheel when it turns very rapidly and loses traction so that there is no contact with the ground. Bias-belted tires and radial tires resist the breakaway action better than a bias ply tire.
A distributor or ignition system where the mechanical switching device (such as points or contacts) are replaced by an electronic switching device through the use of transistors. They are also called contactless or all-electronic ignitions.
Click image to supersize
Breaker Point Distributor
An older style of distributor which used breaker points to act as an on-off switch to interrupt current flow through the primary winding of the coil. It also incorporated a rotor arm and condenser. In modern vehicles, it is replaced by a breakerless distributor and is usually called Electronic ignition system.
A mechanical switch in the distributor with two metal Contact points (usually made of silver, Platinum, or tungsten) that open and close. When the points are closed, energy is stored in the Primary windings of the Coil. When the breaker points open, this energy is transferred to the secondary windings of the coil and stepped up, resulting in a high voltage to fire the plugs. The Air gap between the breaker-point surfaces is critical. If the gap is too small, the timing is retarded, if too wide advanced. Also called points, Contact points, and ignition points.
Strip of wood or plastic used to cover joint between outside case and inside liner of refrigerator.
A British term for a salvage yard.
Breaker-triggered transistorized ignition
A transistorized ignition system whose distributor is the same as that of a coil ignition system, but whose contact breaker switches only the control current of the transistor, not the primary current. Usually not fitted as original equipment.
In fusion, situation when the power produced exceeds the power input for heating and confinement.
Period of operation between the installation of new or rebuilt parts and the time in which the parts are worn to the correct fit, driving at a reduced and varying speed for a specified mileage to permit parts to wear to the correct fit. British term is run-in.
The capacity of a switch, circuit breaker, or other similar device to break an electric circuit under certain specified conditions.
An easily replaceable member of a machine subject to sudden overloads, made weaker than the remainder, so that in breaking it protects the machine from extensive damage.
Trucker slang for ‘I want to talk (on channel 10)’ as in ‘Can I get a break one-oh?’
(BOB) A service tool that tees-in between the computer and the multi-pin harness connector. Once connected in series with the computer and the harness, this test device permits measurements of computer inputs and outputs.
The area of a dent in a panel where the sheet metal is actually buckled into the opposite direction of its normal shape.
A vent or pipe opening into the interior of the engine. It is used to assist ventilation the pipe usually extends downward to a point just below the engine so that the passing air stream will form a partial vacuum thus assisting in venting the engine.
The small passage between the master cylinder fluid reservoir and the area behind the primary cups of the pistons. This port allows fluid from the reservoir to fill the area behind the cups when the brakes are applied, which prevents air bubbles from traveling around the lips of the primary cups as the brakes are released.
A process for making colloidal suspensions of metals in a liquid by striking an arc in the liquid between two electrodes of the metal.
A movable block used for closing and opening an aperture, originally in guns but now also in machines.
Space in hot water or steam boilers between the end of the tubing and the jacket.
Fusion reactor in which further fuel (tritium) is bred from lithium Blanket surrounding the fusion chamber.
A fission reactor which produces more fissile material than is consumed in its operation.
The number of fissionable atoms produced in fertile material per fissionable atom, destroyed in a nuclear reactor. Symbol b r . The quantity b r -1 is known as the breeding gain.
Electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle changes its velocity. Thus when electrons collide with a target and suffer large decelerations, the X-radiation emitted constitutes the continuous X-ray spectrum. From the German for braking radiation.
Literally, the word means certificate, patent, or diploma in French. In Randonneuring, it means two things certification of having successfully done a randonné, and the long-distance bicycle event itself of at least 200 kilometres. Brevet and Randonnée are often interchangeable terms, but a randonnée might be considered to be less structured or less formal than a brevet.
A vehicle brand of which all 1934-1936 models and all Heart Front models with required application are classic cars.
A special hammer for chipping cement blocks and bricks.
A dealer’s colloquial term for a vehicle purchaser’s house that is used as collateral for a loan toward the purchase of a vehicle.
A metal support which is installed in the valve slot of a wheel rim and prevents the flap and tube from bulging through the slot under high pressure and high heat conditions. Also called lemna.
A large horseshoe-shaped device that rides on side rails over a clay model. It is used to take reference points and make accurate measurements of the model.
Circuit often used for measurement of the impedance of passive components, for both ac and dc. Four arms of the bridge are arranged in a diamond-shaped configuration, three comprising accurately known impedances and the fourth, the unknown. A voltage supply is connected to two opposite corners of the diamond and a detector between the other two. By adjusting the known component values, the bridge is balanced when the detector shows a null signal and equations are then available for the unknown in terms of the other three arms of the bridge.
A structure spanning a river, road, etc. giving communication across it so that a vehicle or pedestrian can pass over. Includes overpasses, on-ramps, as well as other roadway structures over waterways.
A designed pad upon which the bridge beams rest to accommodate esp. horizontal thermal expansion and contraction. Usually a steel plate on steel rollers or a laminated structure of steel plates sandwiching blocks of rubber.
High-strength bolts used to fasten together the halves of a split brake caliper.
Bridge structures can be classified into five groups, each of which imposes loads on their materials in different ways.
An electrical circuit in which two circuit branches (usually in parallel with each other) are connected with a third branch.
A vertical division in a two-stroke engine cylinder port which allows the use of a large port without danger of the ring or piston catching.
The concrete horizontal platform or road surface extending the full length and width of the bridge.
Bridge end panels
Reinforced concrete roadway that acts as transition between a bridge and the road.
A bridge protection formula used by federal and state governments to regulate the amount of weight that can be put on each of a vehicle’s axles, and how far apart the axles (or groups of axles) must be to legally carry a given weight.
A fuse in which the fusible wire is carried in a holder, supported by spring contacts at its two ends; it is thus easily removable for renewing the fuse wire.
A measuring device for directing the relative movement of two parts of a machine due to wear at bearings, etc.
A form of hanger of small vertical dimensions, for supporting the overhead contact-wire of a traction system under bridges or tunnels.
A device for detonating the air bag.
Periodically recurring work designed to preserve an existing bridge. Work may be washing, painting, and sealing wood or concrete elements.
Bridge Major Rehabilitation
Reconstruction of a bridge, which upgrades and retains significant elements of the old, such as abutments, beams, or trusses.
A portable instrument for measuring large resistances on the Wheatstone-bridge principle. A megger contains a source of emf and the instrument dial on which the balance is indicated.
Oscillator in which positive feedback and limitation of amplitude is determined by a bridge, which contains a quartz crystal for determining the frequency of oscillation. Devised by Meachan for high stability of operation in crystal clocks, etc.
Steel or reinforced concrete barrier built into the full length of the bridge to prevent vehicles and pedestrians from going over the edge.
Construction of a new bridge, where no structural elements of the old are incorporated into the new.
Bridges and materials
The dependence of the length of the span of a bridge on the strength of materials.
A method, employed in connection with the series-parallel control of traction motors, in which the change from series to parallel is effected without interrupting the main circuit, and without any change in the current flowing in each of the motors.
A protective thin metal washer installed at the valve stem between the flap and rim base to prevent the tube and flap from protruding through the valve slot as a result of high pressure and high temperature.
A characteristic of undercoats that occurs when a scratch or other imperfection in the surface isn’t completely filled. Usually due to under-reducing the primer or using a solvent that dries too fast.
A portion of an overhead contact-wire system. It extends longitudinally between supporting structures and is attached at intervals to the contact-wire, in order to retain the latter in its proper lateral position.
A rope or cable attached to two points (usually the right and left chassis members) of a vehicle and converging to a point of attachment for a tow rope.
The heating and slow cooling of steel or other alloys in a carefully controlled atmosphere, so that oxidation of the surface is reduced to a minimum and the metal surface retains its bright appearance.
A thermionic valve with a pure tungsten cathode, heated by a DC current to 2600K in order to emit electrons. Originally used on all thermionic valves; now superseded by treated cathodes which emit at much lower temperatures.
An addition agent added to an electroplating solution to produce bright deposits.
The production of a fairly bright deposit from an electroplating plant. Such surfaces require little finishing.
Headlights on high beam.
Chrome or stainless steel moldings, surrounds, etc.
The presence of considerable numbers of high harmonics in musical tone, or the enhancement of these in sound reproduction.
A quantum mechanical analogue in paramagnetism of the Langevin equation in classical theory of magnetism.
The scattering of light by the acoustic modes of vibration in a crystal, i.e., photon-phonon scattering.
Polyhedron in k-space, k being the position wavevector of the groups or bands of electron energy states in the band theory of solids. Often constructed by consideration of crystal lattices and their symmetries.
Water saturated with a chemical such as salt, often used as an agent to pre-wet salt before applying it to icy roads
A type of wear in bearing components that is a series of dents in the races or cups
A test of a metal’s hardness by hydraulically pressing a hard ball into the metal.
Brinell hardness test
A method of measuring the hardness of a material by measuring the area of indentation produced by a hard steel ball under standard conditions of loading. Expressed as either Brinell hardness number (BHN) or, preferably, BH following the number, which is the quotient of the load on the ball in kilogram force divided by the area of indentation in square millimetres.
Alloy series of tin (80-90%) with antimony, copper, lead, or zinc, or a mixture of these.
(BA) A term used to describe a series of fine, small diameter threads for electrical and precision equipment.
British Association screw-thread
(BA thread) A system of symmetrical vee threads of 47.5° included angle with rounded roots and crests. It is designated by numbers from 0-25, ranging from 6.0 to 0.25mm in diameter and from 1 to 0.07mm pitch. Used in instrument work, but now being superseded by standard metric sizes. Even numbers are preferred sizes.
Click image for books on
(BL) A former manufacturer of British automobiles, now called the Rover Group. Includes such models as the following:
(BSP thread) A screw-thread of Whitworth profile, but designated by the bore of the pipe on which it is cut (e.g., 3/8 in gas) and not by the full diameter, which is a decimal one, slightly smaller than that of the pipe. Also called British Standard Whitworth thread.
British Standards Institution
(BSI) An organization which prepares and issues British standard specifications.
British Standard specification
(BSS) A specification of efficiency, grade, size, etc., drawn up by the British Standards Institution, referenced so that the material required can be briefly described in a bill or schedule of quantities. The definitions are legally acceptable.
British Standard Whitworth
(BSW) A coarse screw thread used on British vehicles before metrication. It has a profile angle of 55° and a radius at root and crest of 0.1373 x pitch; 1/6 of the thread cut-off. The pitch is standardized with respect to the diameter of the bar on which it is cut.
(BTU) A measurement of the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water, one degree Fahrenheit (usually taken as 60° to 61°F). Equivalent to 252 calories, 778.2 ft-lbf, 1055J. 105 Btu=1 therm.
Fracture which occurs with no discernable plastic deformation, i.e., in the elastic region of the stress-strain curve. Caused by propagation of a crack as distinct from yielding. In metals it may be either intergranular or by cleavage along certain crystal planes.
The tendency to brittle fracture, i.e., without significant plastic deformation. Loosely used as the opposite of toughness, but more precisely means having low values of toughness or resistance to fracture.
A low extreme temperature at which a substance (like rubber) fractures on sudden impact.
Point at which a material changes in fracture behavior, from ductile to brittle. For polymers, it is often a little below Tg. Sometimes denoted TB. Sensitive to sample geometry (e.g., stress concentrations) and rate effects, such as occur in impact tests.
Bringing a metal surface to the desired shape by forcing (pushing or pulling) a multiple-edged cutting tool across the surface.
A metal cutting tool for machining holes, often non-circular; it consists of a tapered shaft carrying transverse cutting edges, which is driven or pulled through the roughly finished hole.
A generating process whereby metal is removed with a multiple-point tool, usually a bar, with tooth height increasing from the starting end. When the broach is pulled or pushed through or over the work, each tooth removes a clip of uniform thickness, in contrast to a milling cutting tooth which removes a wedge-shaped chip.
A vehicle brand of which the pre-1948 models with required application are classic cars.
A small inclined ramp to allow passage of trucks over a hatch coaming or bulkhead door sills etc.
A raised or protruding area above or around an arch, like a headlamp or wheel well.
A watershed over an airport
The top of a hill on a road
Brown and Sharpe wire gauge
(B and S wire gauge) A system of designating the diameter of wire by numbers; it ranges from 0000 (0.46 in) to 50 (0.001 in).
Small movements of bodies such as particles in a colloid, due to statistical fluctuations in the bombardment by surrounding molecules of the dispersion medium. It may be directed by movement of a galvanometer coil. Also called Brownian motion and colloidal movement and pedesis.
The result of a vehicle salesperson who sells a car to a customer in response to putting notes (like ‘call me about trading your car’) on car windows along the street.
Any tire injury which weakens, breaks, or separates the carcass cords without damaging the visible rubber surface.
The pieces of carbon, graphite, or copper, that rub against the Commutator on the Generator or starter motor or against the slip rings on an Alternator and conducts current from the power supply to the armature windings. As they wear down, they need to be replaced.
A rubbing contact on a commutator, switch, or relay. Also called wiper.
The voltage drop between the brush arm and the segment beneath the brush at points along the brush width plotted against brush width as an indication of the correctness of compole flux density in a DC machine.
Discharge from a conductor when the potential difference between it and its surroundings exceeds a certain value but is not enough to cause a spark or an arc. It is usually accompanied by hissing high noise. Also called brushing discharge and corona.
Abbreviation for Brake Specific Fuel Consumption — the ratio of the engine fuel consumption to the engine power output (as measured at the flywheel). BSFC has units of grams of fuel per kilowatt-hour (g/kWh) or pounds mass of fuel per brake horsepower-hour (lb/bhp-hr). BSFC is a measure of engine efficiency.
Colloquial term for a truck tractor pulling two semi trailers where the second trailer sits on a fifth wheel that is permanently attached and extends off the rear of the lead trailer. Most commonly used on flatbeds or tank trailers. The B-train is considered a more stable double trailers configuration.
Abbreviation for Battery Temperature Sensor
Abbreviation for Bureau of Transportation Statistics. An organization which compiles, analyzes, and publishes statistics relevant to the US nation’s transportation system. Created to improve the knowledge base for public decision-making and to improve public awareness of the nation’s transportation system, BTS collects information on transportation and other areas as needed. The Bureau’s largest data collection programs are the Commodity Flow Survey and the American Travel Survey, conducted jointly with the Bureau of the Census to identify where freight and people go by all modes of transportation.
Abbreviation for Brake Transmission Shift Interlock
Abbreviation for British thermal unit. The amount of heat that must be added to one pound of water to raise its temperature one Fahrenheit degree.
Abbreviation for Board of Trade unit equal to 1 kWhr.
Industry term referring to the group of aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene and xylene
Abbreviation for benzene, toluene, xylene
A small blister in the finish of paint.
The bubble of air and spirit vapor within a Level tube loosely, the level tube itself.
A type of small car which was popular in the 1950s. It had a bulbous-shaped glass front to provide maximum interior room in spite of its small size. The door opened to the front of the driver. Examples are the BMW Isetta and Heinkel Trojan.
Duplex polymer film with regular array of bubbles thermoformed into one side, used for crush-proof packaging.
Tendency of polymer bubble blown after extrusion in manufacture of film to maintain a constant shape without breaking or collapsing. Depends on tension stiffening behavior of molten polymer.
Sheet of plastic with a series of small air bubbles used as packing material.
A vehicle brand of which the TAV 8, TAV 30, TAV 12 and Double Huit models with required application are classic cars.
A protective relay for use with transformers or other oil-immersed apparatus; it embodies a float which becomes displaced and operates the relay contacts if gas bubbles are generated by a fault within the equipment being protected.
The special type of reflection of light from the sound-track on a disk record whereby the lateral velocity of the track can be determined.
In the design process of creating a vehicle, a buck is an accurate representation of only the vehicle’s interior which includes the seats, pedals, instruments, steering wheel, doors, and floor in order to evaluate style, ergonomics, comfort, function, etc.
A conveyor or elevator consisting of a pair of endless chains running over toothed wheels, and carrying a series of buckets which, on turning over, discharge their contents at the delivery end.
An individual seat which is found in pairs in the front of a vehicle. Named because the curvature of the backrest and cushion resembles a cut-out bucket.
Valve lifters that are hollow, cylindrical, and closed at one end and used with some overhead camshafts. The flat, closed end of the tappet (bottom of the bucket) rests against the camshaft lobe with part of the Valve spring and Valve stem enclosed by the cylinder. Called bucket tappets because they are shaped like upside-down buckets.
A non-return (delivery) valve fitted in the bucket or piston of some types of reciprocating pump
A winding on an electromagnet to oppose the magnetic field of the main winding. Such a device is sometimes used in electromagnetic loudspeakers to smooth out voltage pulsations in the power supply. Also called hum-bucking coil.
A locking clasp usually found on seat belts and tie-down straps.
A metal strap
In foundry work, a swelling on the surface of a sand mold due to steam generated below the surface.
To crumple up, especially when metal bends in a vehicle accident. To twist or bend out of shape such as when plates of metal or a structural member deforms under compressive load.
Battery plates that have been bent or warped out of a flat plane.
A portable cover secured over the deck opening of the hawsepipes and the chain pipes to restrict the flow of water through the openings.
To put your seat belt on. British term is belt up
A sensitive ionization gauge for measuring very low gas pressures.
A distortion of accumulator plates caused by uneven expansion, usually as a result of heavy discharges or other maltreatment.
Mode of deformation in which an elastic instability occurs in a plate or a structural member under compressive load, resulting in a twisting or bending out of shape. Usually leads to plastic deformation and eventual collapse.
A term in reactor diffusion theory giving a measure of curvature of the deutron density distribution. The geometric buckling depends only on the shape and dimensions of the assembly while the material buckling provides a measure of the multiplying properties of an assembly as a function of the materials and their disposition.
Transformer with secondary in mains circuit to regulate voltage according to a controlling circuit feeding the primary. Also called boost transformer
Flakes of rubber produced by abrading treads of worn tires for retreading; of limited use as recycled material for new tire compounds.
A machine used to Rasp the old tread from the tire.
An electronic amplifier, often with unity gain, which is designed to decouple input from output. Normally designed to have high input impedance so that it does not load the driving stage and low output impedance such that it can provide current drive.
A spring-loaded pad attached to the framework of railway rolling-stock to minimize the shock of collision; any resilient pad used for a resilient purpose. May be hydraulically controlled or dampened.
A substance added to an electrolyte solution which prevents rapid changes in the concentration of a given ion. Also called buffer reagent
A closed tank that cushions the explosive expulsion of liquid from a system connected to it by controlling the gas pressure in the tank.
The limiting values of the speed of sound and altitude at which an aircraft can be flown without experiencing buffet in unaccelerated flight.
Severe, pulsating force of wind. When you drive in a convertible with the top down, you will often experience this buffeting action of the wind. It is also noticeable when a vehicle is driven quickly with the windows down.
An irregular oscillation of any part of an aircraft, caused and maintained by an eddying wake from some other part; commonly, tail buffeting in the downwash of the main plane, which gives warning of the approach of the Stall.
Smoothing and polishing a surface by using a Buffing wheel and polishing paste or liquid.
Grinding or Rasping off remaining tread rubber to give the Casing proper texture to accept new retread stock and proper dimensions to fit the matrix.
A machined device of a specific shape used to obtain the required Buffed contour.
A disc which is covered in soft cloth or lambswool. It is powered by a tool like a drill which spins the disc to give a high gloss shine to the surface of a vehicle.
The dividing line in the cross section of a tire between the buffed surface of the original tire and the new retread rubber.
Abbreviation for Bicycle user group or bus user group to represent cyclists or bus travelers.
Bug and tar remover
A solution which will dissolve bugs and tar residue. After application, it needs to be washed off or it will also remove the paint.
Click image for books on
A vehicle brand of which all pre-1948 models (except types 52 and 68) are classic cars. The 1951 Type 101 model is a milestone car.
Click image to supersize
A length of clear plastic which is attached to the front of the hood to prevent bugs from hitting the windshield. Also called a bug shield.
Trucker slang for leaving a CB radio channel as in ‘I better bug out and get some shut eye.’
A vehicle manufacturer which began in 1906 and is now part of General Motors . The 1931-32 series 90 and Limited with required application are classic cars. The Riviera for 1949 and 1963-70 are milestone cars. The 1953-54 Skylark are also milestone cars. Models include the following:
A crankshaft which is not cast or forged as one piece, but made of several different parts.
The order in which successive welding runs or beads are applied in joining thick plates to achieve maximum strength with acceptable stress from heat distortion.
A round area for vehicle turnaround typically located at the end of a cul-de-sac street.
An electronic device which gives off light by the heating of an element contained with a glass enclosure. The metal base which conducts the electricity may be a barrel with locating pins, or it may have small Filament wires protruding from the base. In some cases it is a tube with contacts at either end. When replacing bulbs, especially high intensity bulbs like halogen, be sure to avoid touching the glass. The oil from your fingers will cause the bulb to overheat and burn out quickly. If you do touch the glass, you need to clean it with alcohol and air dry it.
A rolled, or extruded, bar of strip form in which the section is thickened along one edge.
The blackening of a light bulb; gradual blackening of conventional, i.e., non-halogen light bulbs, occurs as a result of metal vapor deposition on the glass envelope which reduces light emission; severe blackening indicates imminent bulb failure
A ship designed to carry unpackaged cargo such as grain, woodchips, ore, coal, etc.
Using large containers of refrigerant to charge the system. Commonly employed with charging stations to perform complete system charges.
Loose goods (like woodchips, grain, petroleum, ore, and coal) that are not packaged in a box, bottle, etc.
A structural partition that separates compartments. This is generally a metal wall that extends from one side of a vehicle to the other. In the engine compartment, you would find a radiator bulkhead near the front and a firewall bulhead near the back of the engine bay. Another bulkhead separates the passengers from the trunk. The instrument panel is also a bulkhead.
In a public service vehicle (i.e., taxi, limo), the partition which separates the driver from the passengers.
Vertical partition walls which separates the interior of a ship into compartments or rooms.
In an airplane fuselage, the major structural transverse dividing wall providing access between several internal sections, or a strengthened and sealed wall at the front and rear designed to withstand the differential pressure required for pressurization.
In a power plant nacelle, the structure serving as a firewall.
A masonry or timber partition to hold back soil found in a tunnel or along a waterfront.
A wall-like structure used at the front of a flatbed or back of the power unit to protect against damage from shifting cargo, or a wall inside any trailer that partitions the load.
An OEM device used to connect wiring inside the vehicle body with wiring outside the body. Usually located at the bulkhead or firewall.
The uppermost deck to which the transverse watertight bulkheads are carried.
Ratio between the volume of loosely placed material and the same weight of material when compacted to a given specification.
Bulk refrigerant drum
A large (e.g., 10 lbs, 25 lbs, 30 lbs) container of refrigerant generally used in professional air conditioning service shops which employ charging stations to perform complete system charges.
Wholesale sales of gasoline in individual transactions which exceed the size of a truckload.
A facility used primarily for the storage and/or marketing of petroleum products, which has a total bulk storage capacity of less than 50,000 barrels and receives its petroleum products by tank car or truck.
The storage of product in a shipping container
The storage of loose, unpackaged product
A facility used primarily for the storage and/or marketing of petroleum products, which has a total bulk storage capacity of 50,000 barrels or more and/or receives petroleum products by tanker, barge, or pipeline.
Test for materials having a high attenuation for use as a radiation shield.
A truck trailer that carries bulk cargo like woodchips, grain, petroleum, ore, and coal
A straight truck that carries bulk cargo like woodchips, grain, petroleum, ore, and coal
The upward extension of a bumper to protect lights and the grille.
A rail section once used widely in the UK, having the shape roughly of a short dumb-bell in outline, but with unequal heads, the larger being the upper part in use.
A warning horn that sounds like the bellow of a bull or the moo of a cow.
A bicycle handlebar that proceeds laterally through the center attaching bracket and then rises upward at each end.
Gold or silver in bulk, i.e., as produced at the refineries, not in the form of coin.
The gold-silver alloy produced before the metals are separated.
In parcel of metal of minerals being sold, where the main value is that of the base metal which forms the bulk of the parcel, the contained gold or other precious metal of minor value included in the sale.
The lowest gear in a transmission. Some older transmissions listed their gears as bull low (used for getting out of a stuck condition or climbing a very steep hill), low or first (used for starting out from a stop or for climbing a moderate hill), second (used for town driving or slight hills), third (used for highway cruising).
The upright radiator shape of 1913-30 Morris Oxford and Morris Cowley cars and vans which resembled a bull’s nose. Also called Flatnose or Snubnose
A metal ring used in the construction of overhead contact wire systems for electric schemes; it forms the junction of three or more straining wires.
To drive in rivets with a high powered air or hydraulic machine.
Click image for books on
A motorcycle manufacturer
Fore-and-aft vertical plating immediately above the upper edge of the sheer strake.
A sea-wall built to withstand the force of the waves; in some cases the reinforcement of the natural Breakwater.
A slight rising of the pavement possibly caused by a frost heave and if severe enough will be indicated by a sign
On early vehicles, a bumper was a separate metal bar or blade at each end of a vehicle to prevent damaging the main part of the vehicle from hitting an obstruction or being hit by another vehicle. In modern vehicles the bumpers are integrated with the body panels and is secured by hydraulic rams.
A device for lifting one corner of a vehicle to change a tire. Older cars used a long bar which fitted into a base. A device on the long bar had a hook which was placed in a strategic place on the vehicle. A lug wrench was inserted into the other end of the device and used to move the moveable part up the long bar thus lifting the vehicle.
Sheetmetal below the bumper to keep dirt and debris from entering the engine bay. Also called ‘modesty panel’ or ‘modesty skirt.’
A method of starting a manual transmission (not for automatics) vehicle by pushing it (especially down a hill) and letting in the clutch while in second gear and the ignition set to the on position.
To start a car using a bump start.
When an uneven road surface causes a vehicle to steer or lose Directional stability, this is called bump steer. At the front, bump steer is associated with the tie-rod and linkage-arm relationship. It is caused by the method of locating the Rear suspension, the type of rear suspension, and the geometry of the various linkages. In race cars, bump steer is designed out of the suspension so that the handling is as precise as possible. In most cars it is present to some degree. In fact, it can be useful to allow engineers to design a small amount of Understeer or oversteer into the chassis.
A cushioning device, usually rubber, that limits the upward movement of the wheels and suspension to prevent metal-to-metal contact that could lead to suspension damage or failure. Also called jounce bumpers.
A condition of driving when the vehicle support springs are fully compressed.
Arrangement which velocity-modules and thereby forms bunches of electrons in the electron beam current passing through it. Bunching would be ideal if the bunches contained electrons all having the same beam velocity. Also called input gap.
The process of forming a steady electron beam into a succession of electron groups, or bunches. The result of interaction between an alternating electric field at the mouth of a cavity and an electron beam passing close by.
Transit delay or phase angle between modulation and extraction of energy in a bunched beam of electrons.
Two or more overhead line conductors, suitably spaced to avoid Brush discharge loss, forming a phase, replaces a single large conductor.
Trucker slang for Trailer is fully loaded as in ‘As bundled out as I am those hills will really slow me down.’
A rubber tie down strap of various lengths (usually 10 mm diameter) with a metal hook on each end. Most are covered with fabric. The hooks are often plastic coated to minimize scratching. Some have an extra hook attached in the middle. Others are linked with a second cord to produce an X-shape. They are used to secure objects to a luggage rack.
Space where ice or cooling element is placed in commercial installations.
A storage space for coal or oil fuel.
The capacity of a space in a ship used for carrying fuel. It is calculated at a fixed rate of stowage per unit volume, according to fuel, and allowances for obstructions are made in percentage.
Bunker Fuel Oil
Heavy, residual fuel oil used in ships.
Fuel supplied to ships and aircraft, both domestic and foreign, consisting primarily of residual and distillate fuel oil for ships and kerosene-based jet fuel for aircraft. The term international bunker fuels is used to denote the consumption of fuel for international transport activities. Note: For the purposes of greenhouse gas emissions inventories, data on emissions from combustion of international bunker fuels are subtracted from national emissions totals. Historically, bunker fuels have meant only ship fuel.
Soviet space shuttle which undertook a successful unmanned flight in November 1988, later missions were cancelled due to funding problems
The load on an instrument transformer. It is usually expressed as the normal rated load in volt-amperes, or as the impedance of the circuit fed by the secondary winding.
A credit report on a customer who is about to purchase a vehicle.
Bureau of land management
(BLM) The United States government agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior which has divided trails into four classes
Type I is at least 213cm wide (enough for a family vehicle), paved, easy to traverse.
Type II is also at least 213cm wide, not paved, but is usually improved. However it may be rough or rutted and contain Washboards. It is best traveled by high-clearance 4WD vehicles.
Type III is a narrow unimproved dirt road, often with rocks, steep hills, and mud over which only 4WD should use.
Type IV trails are for Mountain bikes, dirt bikes, and ATVs. 2WD or 4WD vehicles are not allowed.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics
(BTS) An organization which compiles, analyzes, and publishes statistics relevant to the US nation’s transportation system. Created to improve the knowledge base for public decision-making and to improve public awareness of the nation’s transportation system, BTS collects information on transportation and other areas as needed. The Bureau’s largest data collection programs are the Commodity Flow Survey and the American Travel Survey, conducted jointly with the Bureau of the Census to identify where freight and people go by all modes of transportation.
A term occasionally applied to the metal which has been combined with oxygen to the end that some of the carbon has been changed into carbon dioxide and some of the iron into iron oxide.
Neutron absorber introduced into a reactor system to reduce initial reactivity but becoming progressively less effective as burn-up proceeds. This helps to counteract the fall in reactivity as the fuel is used up. Boron-10, which is transmuted into helium by neutron capture, has been used in the form of borosilicate glass placed in empty control-rod guides.
Valves that have become pitted so that they do not close properly.
A device which tends to consume a lot of material.
Device in which burning of fuel takes place.
A device for the final conveyance of the gas, or a mixture of gas and air, to the combustion zone.
Unit made from refractory material that fits into a furnace wall at the burner position, having a nozzle-protecting recess at back and a tunnel on the firing side. It is called quarl in oil-firing practice.
That portion of a burner beyond the outlet end of the mixer tube that contains the ports.
Potential heat that can be liberated efficiently from a burner. Expressed in kilowatts or Btu h-1
Burner turndown factor
Minimum gas rate at which a burner is capable of stable flame propagation without the flame flashing back to the air-gas mixing point or blowing off from the burner nozzle or head.
A manually or mechanically operated valve which permits control of the flow of fuel.
The violent combination of oxygen with any substance to produce heat.
The action of consuming something to produce heat, i.e., combustion.
The heating of an alloy to too high a temperature, causing local fusion or excessive penetration of oxide, and rendering the alloy weak and brittle.
Going beyond the displayed maximum speed. For example, an analog speedometer may show speeds from zero to 137 kph on its display. When the needle reaches the maximum displayed point, it does not rest there as the vehicle accelerates further. The needle is attached to a spring allowing the needle to keep winding up. The bezel around the speedometer may hide the needle so that it goes beyond the line of sight and is considered buried.
A large public or private passenger vehicle used for transporting many (at least 10) passengers.
The operation of dressing the surface of stone or concrete with a special hammer having rows of projecting points on its striking face for decoration or to improve bonding to the next placement of further concrete.
A protective liner or sleeve that cushions noise, friction, or movement. suspension bushings are often made from two pipes (one inside the other) with a sleeve of rubber in the space between the two pipes.
A road junction where there is a lot of traffic and may be controlled by signal lights or not. Usually a place where accidents are more likely to occur.
A petroleum gas easily liquefied under pressure, recovered from natural gas. Used as a low-volatility component of motor gasoline, processed further for a high-octane gasoline component, used in LPG for domestic and industrial applications and used as a raw material for petrochemical synthesis. Often used as engine fuel in trucks.
Trade name for diethylene glycol dibutyl ether, used for separating uranium and plutonium from fission products.
Particular groups of atoms in organic compounds which have the effect of lowering frequency of the radiation absorbed by these compounds.
The joint between two plates or other members which meet edge to edge.
The square ends of a piston ring.
A solderless wire connector used to permanently join two wire ends together.
Tubing whose outside diameter remains constant but whose thickness is reduced in midsection where less strength is needed.
Term used in metal extrusion where an open U shape is first made and the sides then folded closer to make a vertically sided U. This enables the die to be much stronger because the narrow section to form the inside of the U can have a wider base.
A socket cap screw with a wider dome-shaped head and lower profile than a socket cap screw. Used when a wider bearing surface or a smoother, more finished appearance is desired. Button head cap screws do not afford the strength of socket head cap screws and are designed for light fastening applications.
A screw-thread designed to withstand heavy axial thrust in one direction. The back of the thread slopes at 45°, while the front or thrust face is perpendicular to the axis.
A screw thread with one vertical and one inclined flank.
A plate that overlaps two pieces that are pressed up against each other edge to edge (i.e., butted) in order to secure them. The two butted pieces may be welded to each other or the butt strap could be welded to the pieces or simply bolted to them.
Tube made by drawing mild steel strip through a bell-shaped die, so that the strip is coiled into a tube, the edges being then pressed together and welded.
The joining of two plates or surfaces by placing them together, edge to edge, and welding along the seam thus formed.
A non-porous synthetic rubber used in making inner tubes and tubeless tire liners and as a base for one type of adhesive. It has poor resistance to petroleum oils and gasoline but excellent resistance to vegetable and mineral oils, and to such solvents as acetone, alcohol, phenol, and ethylene glycol. Also has excellent resistance to water and gas adsorption and sunlight.
A synthetic rubber used as a base for one type of adhesive. It has poor resistance to petroleum oils and gasoline but excellent resistance to vegetable and mineral oils; to such solvents as acetone, alcohol, phenol, and ethylene glycol; and excellent resistance to water and gas adsorption and sunlight.
The typical material for tubes. Inexpensive, easy to repair.
The certification of the suitability of electrical equipment for use in an atmosphere in which fire or explosion hazards are present.
Buy at end-of term interest rate
The effective net interest rate for the lease if, at the end of the lease, the car is purchased at the end-of-lease purchase price.
The act of determining whether or not a product purchase or repair, will be made, and/or which product or service will be purchased.
The interest rate that banks or financing institutions will charge on all vehicle contracts being financed. It is a secret number between the bank and the dealer which is the real amount of the interest rate that the loan starts out at before the dealer increases it for its own extra profit.
Severe vibration of a control surface in transonic or supersonic flight caused by separation of the airflow due to compressibility effects.
To interfere with an aircraft in flight by flying very close to it.
(BPV) A valve that can open and allow fluid or gas to pass through in other than its normal channel.
A switching device (Silicon-controlled rectifier or, in the past, mercury arc valve), connected across the converter switching devices of a high-voltage DC transmission system, normally not conducting but able to maintain flow of current whenever the main conducting devices have to be interrupted.
A valve by which the flow of fluid in a system may be directed past some part of the system through which it normally flows, e.g., an oil-filter in a lubrication system.