Glossary of Automotive Terms – L

Letter L – Dictionary of Automotive Terms

  1. Low gear in an automatic transmission.
  2. Designation for luxury or Luxe
  3. The symbol for Inductance
  4. Abbreviation for litres
l/100 km
This is the metric measurement of fuel consumption or fuel economy. The lower the number the more economical the vehicle. Thus a vehicle that gives 7 l/100 km is better than one that gives 8 l/100 km. A vehicle that gives 7.3 l/100 km is giving 32.2 mpg US and 38.7 mpg Imperial.
Abbreviation for Four Cylinder Inline Engine
Abbreviation for Latvian Authorized Automobile Dealers Association.
Pre-printed and pre-affixed tags installed by the manufacturer, sometimes with bar-coded information to allow scanning devices to quickly and automatically transfer the information into inventory systems.

Labeling Act
An engine which is struggling to keep turning due to lack of revs or the use of too high a gear
Laboratory Horsepower
An engine that is Lugging because it has difficulty in turning over.
The positioning of spokes in the hub and rim. See truing.
Lack of parallelism
A measurement of brake rotor thickness variation at various points around a rotor.
  1. A fast drying automotive body pyroxylin paint.
  2. A glossy coating made by dissolving cellulose derivatives in a rapidly evaporating solvent.
  3. Protective coating or finish which dries to form a film by evaporation of a volatile (easily goes from liquid to gas) constituent.
Lacquer thinner
A model of automobile manufactured by Buick Division of General Motors from 2005-current. In Canada, the name was changed to Allure because lacrosse in Quebec meant masturbation.
Inclined steps, used aboard ship in place of stairs

Ladder bars
A rigid triangular suspension devices used to locate an axle front to rear. These are used almost exclusively in drag race cars due to the fact that they bind when cornering. A panhard rod or a watts link is used to locate the axle side to side.
Ladder chassis
Ladder diagram
Electrical diagram that indicates order of electrical devices in a specific electrical circuit.
Ladder Form Electrical Diagram
Ladder frame

Ladder FrameLadder Frame

A type of frame design which has two long parallel sections which run from the front to the rear of the vehicle. In various places there are shorter sections which connect the long sections. The result looks like a ladder. The connecting pieces hold various components such as the engine. This design is not used today because it is too heavy and lacks rigidity. Also called ladder chassis

Vehicle carrying some or full payload.
Laden weight
The load or freight that a vehicle carries.

Ladies’ frame
The type of frame in which the Top tube is replaced by a second Down tube to make mounting and dismounting the bike easier.
Delay in response.

Lag bolt

Lag boltLag bolt

A full-bodied fastener with hex head or a square head, spaced coarse-pitch threads and gimlet or cone point. Designed for insertion in wood or other resilient materials and producing its own mating thread. Also called lag screw.

The process of covering hot fluid lines with a non-conducting material in order to maintain its temperature.
Lagging power factor
A designation of the relative instantaneous direction of the currents to the voltages: (angle is 0 to +90°)
A vehicle brand of which all models from 1925 to 1940 except the 1934-40 Rapier Two Post-War V-12 are classic cars. The 1948-49 V-12 models are milestone cars.

Lagonda Drophead
A vehicle brand of which the 1949-53 2.5 Litre Drophead Coupes are milestone cars.
Lag screw


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Chevrolet Laguna

A model of intermediat car produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motorsfrom 1973-76.

Lake pipes
Nonfunctional side pipes attached along the lower sides of a vehicle for decorative purposes only. Also called Lakes pipes or lakers
A type of ship which trades only in the Great Lakes of North America. The cargo is usually grain and ore.


Nonfunctional side pipes attached along the lower sides of a vehicle for decorative purposes only. Also called lake pipes or Lakes pipes

Lakes pipes
Nonfunctional side pipes attached along the lower sides of a vehicle for decorative purposes only. Also called lake pipes or lakers
Lakes ship
  1. Eleventh letter of the Greek alphabet. Upper case=Λ (looks like A without the cross bar), lower case=λ (looks like an up-side-down y).
  2. Bosch’s term for oxygen
  3. The ratio between actual air/fuel ratio and stoichiometric ratio. Lambda of less than 1 is rich, and greater than 1 is lean.
Lambda control
Bosch’s term for a closed loop system that adjusts the air-fuel ratio to lambda-1, based on sensing the amount of excess oxygen in the exhaust
Lambda control valve
Lambda probe
Lambda sensor
A device that senses if the fuel mixture is rich or lean and adjust the control units Lambda regulator accordingly so that the catalytic converter can operate most effectively
Lambda valve
In Bosch CIS, a device that regulates pressure in the lower chamber of the differential-pressure valve, in response to a signal from the lambda (oxygen) sensor. Also called Frequency valve or a Timing valve
Lambda window
A narrow range (where lambda = 1), which yields the lowest emission values for CO, NOx, and HC
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A model of automobile manufactured in Italy

Abbreviation for Short Term Fuel Trim
  1. To build up or construct out of a number of thin sheets which are bonded together. The magnetocoil has a laminated core.
  2. A sheet of material made of several different bonded layers.
Something made up of many layers.
Laminated spring

Laminated springLaminated spring

A series of curved or flat spring steel used to support suspension. Also called leaf spring

Laminated contact
The contacts of a switch with several layers so that as you apply more and more pressure the resistance is reduced and more voltage is permitted.
Laminated glass
A sandwich-type construction of two or more panes of glass laminated together with an extremely tough, crystal-clear plastic film; on severe impact, laminated glass will crack, but not shatter like ordinary glass, nor craze over like toughened glass
Laminated iron core
The core of an ignition coil consisting of pieces of soft iron laminations, insulated from one another
Laminated windshield
Older safety windshields were made of Tempered glass which is heat treated so that the surface is very tough. When a vehicle with tempered glass is involved in an accident, the windshield shatters into a spider web of little crystals. Its adhesive property is greatly diminished so that an object (your body) can easily be ejected through the windshield. Laminated windshields, however, are made with two sheets of glass with a thin layer of rubbery plastic in between. When your head hits the windshield, the windshield bows out without being punctured. The plastic sandwich prevents the glass from splintering. The plastic sandwich can also contain a tint to reduce heat in the passenger compartment and protect the eyes from glare (like sunglasses). Compare Toughened windshield
Laminated windshield glass
Covering sheets with a particular layer or covering molded parts with a specific plastic film
  1. The act of laminating. The process of bonding two or more layers or plies of material together with an adhesive
  2. A thin layer.
  3. A structure made up of thin layers
  1. A device for giving off light without being consumed itself.
  2. Artificial light. The term is often used when referring to a bulb or tube.
Lamp aperture
An opening in a sheet metal panel for mounting the headlight or taillight
Lamp blackening
The blackening of a light bulb; gradual blackening of conventional, i.e., non-halogen light bulbs, occurs as a result of metal vapor deposition on the glass envelope which reduces light emission; severe blackening indicates imminent bulb failure
Lamp cluster
A group of lights behind a cover; the rear lights of most cars are grouped together in clusters.

Lamp panel
A panel that encloses part or all of the headlight or taillight cutout and may extend across the width of the car to include both cutouts; in the latter case, it forms an additional panel to be joined to the smaller front or rear valances
Lamp socket
A device which holds a light bulb and provides electricity to the bulb. The British term is Bulb holder
Lamp unit
A sealed light unit with reflector and lens all-in-one
A vehicle brand of which the 1919-31 models 21, 23, 30 and 40 with required application are classic cars.
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A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with required application are classic cars. The 1959-64 Flaminia Zagato models are milestone cars. The 1961-63 Flaminia GT Two Passenger Coupe or Convertible are milestone cars. The 1962-66 Flavia Coupe are milestone cars. The 1951-59 Aurelia B.20 and B.2O Coupe are Milestone cars. The 1953-59 Aurelia B.24 Spyder and Convertible are milestone cars.

The smooth, open area of a grooved surface, such as the bands of metal between the grooves in a piston which carry the piston rings. The metal separating a series of grooves.

  1. Originally a limousine with an open drivers compartment, front and back seats facing each other, and a two-part convertible roof (like a Brougham). In recent years US manufacturers used the term to describe a cloth-covered fixed top.
  2. A closed-type body on the sides, it has provision for opening or folding the fabric top over the rear quarter. This precludes the use of rear quarter windows. Landau irons are fairly common but not a mandatory feature.
Landau bar
Landau bars
S-shaped bars or irons on the C-post. On convertibles, they are functional; but decorative on other body styles.
  1. A classic car style characterized by the fact that only the rear seats were protected by a hard or convertible top, whereas the driver was exposed to the open air in order to be more aware of road and weather conditions; an imitation landaulet style is still found on some American sedans. Also called Landau
  2. A Landau limousine in which the section over the passenger / rear seats also opens or folds down.
Landaulet sedan
This body style is similar to the landau sedan in appearance, but with a stationary rear quarter. Landau irons are mounted on the rear quarter but are non-functional.
Landau top
A roof style characterized by a (usually small) rear section being covered by vinyl fabric or otherwise set apart.
Landed cost
Total expense of receiving goods at place of retail sale, including retail purchase price and transportation charges.
Landfill gas
Gas that is generated by decomposition of organic material at landfill disposal sites. The average composition of landfill gas is approximately 50 percent methane and 50 percent carbon dioxide and water vapor by volume. The methane percentage, however, can vary from 40 to 60 percent, depending on several factors including waste composition: (e.g. carbohydrate and cellulose content). The methane in landfill gas may be vented, flared, combusted to generate electricity or useful thermal energy on-site, or injected into a pipeline for combustion off-site.
Landing Gear
The retracting legs which support the front of a semitrailer when it is not coupled to a tractor.

Landing panel
Landing section
Slang for telephone as in ‘It is hard to find a landline when you need one.’
Land management
Land Rover
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Land Rover

An SUV built in England including Defender 90 (1994-97), Defender 110 (1993), Discovery (1994-2004), Discovery Series II (1999-2002), Freelander (2002-05), LR3 (2005-07), Range Rover (1970-2007), and Range Rover Sport (2006-07)

The piston metal between the Ring grooves.

Land tractor
Commonly called ‘an agricultural tractor,’ or ‘farm tractor’ — these vehicles are designed to work on land in connection with agricultural, forestry or land drainage-type operations and are driven on a public road only when proceeding to or from the site of such work
Land yacht
A colloquial term for an oversized luxury car, especially the huge chrome laden finned vehicles of the late 1950’s early ’60’s.
  1. A narrow road, often in the country.
  2. A track on a road, defining lines of traffic.
Lane mile
A measure of road length that reflects the number of miles in each driving lane. For example: Three miles of a four-lane highway equals twelve lane miles.
Lane splitting
Riding between lanes of traffic on a freeway (i.e., straddling the white line)
A unit or measure of solar radiation; 1 calorie per square centimetre or 3.69 Btu per square foot.
Lantern-type jacket tube


A line (made of rope, nylon, etc.) which is attached at one end to a frame or large item while the other end is attached to a smaller piece that might get lost. The picture shows a lanyard attached to a hitch pin.

  1. One complete trip around a race track or route laid out for racing.
  2. A joint in which one part overlaps the other, thus avoiding the use of a butt strap.
  3. The amount of overlap.
  4. To fit two surfaces together by coating them with abrasive and then rubbing them together (e.g., to lap valves into valve seats).
  5. The upper surface of the human body from waist to knees when seated.
  6. A rotating disc covered with fine abrasive for polishing.
Lap belt
A 2-point belt pulled across the hips, or lap belt portion of a combined lap/shoulder belt; mostly only on the rear center seat, on some models on all rear seats.

Lap joint
Lap joint
Lap joint
  1. A piston ring gap in which the two ends of the ring are shaped like the letter L. Also called step joint.
  2. A welding term describing a union in which the edges of the two metals to be joined overlap one another.
Lapped Valves
Smoothing a metal surface to high degree of refinement or accuracy using a fine abrasive.
Lapping compound
Large passenger car
A passenger car with more than 120 cubic feet of interior passenger and luggage volume.
Large pickup truck
A pickup truck weighing between 4,500-8,500 lbs gross vehicle weight: (GVW).
Large SUV
Long wheelbase sport utility vehicle based on a pickup truck chassis. Some examples are the Chevrolet Suburban, Chevrolet Tahoe, Ford Expedition, GMC Yukon, Nissan Armada, and Toyota Sequoia.

A vehicle brand of which the 1927-1933 models are classic cars.
  1. The amount of free motion between two components (e.g., two gears). The British term is free play.
  2. Abbreviation for Lighter Aboard Ship a ship designed to carry floating containers or Lighters.
Last in, first out
(LIFO) Accounting method of valuing inventory that assumes latest goods purchased are first goods used during accounting period.
Last station memory
An audio and video term describing the circuit which ensures that when the unit is turned on, the tuner automatically tunes to the station that was received before the unit was turned off
A fastening device for a door or panel. It consists of a small metal bar, either mounted on the movable part (always on doors and on some tailgates), or on the car body (always on hoods and trunks), which engages with a striker on the opposite part.

Latching pillar


Latching Type valve
A manual gas valve which requires at least two separate actions or movements to turn on the valve, as for example, pushing in on the valve handle to unlatch the valve before the valve handle can be rotated to turn on the fuel.
Latch pillar


Late braking
Braking later into the turn, thus moving the entry point and axis of the vehicle
Late model car
A class of vehicle (American or foreign) built after 1973 in original or modified condition.

Latent heat
The heat absorbed or radiated during a change of state (i.e., melting, vaporization, fusion) at constant temperature and pressure. Called latent cause it is hidden — cannot be felt or measured with a thermometer
Latent heat of condensation
The amount of heat given off when a substance changes from a vapor to the liquid without changing temperature
Latent heat of evaporation
The amount of heat required to change a liquid into a vapor without raising the temperature of the vapor above that of the original liquid
Latent heat of vaporization
Amount of heat required, per pound of substance, to change its state from a liquid to a vapor (gas).
Relating to the side.
Lateral acceleration
The acceleration created when a vehicle corners that tends to push a vehicle sideways. Because of Centrifugal force, the vehicle is pushed outward. For this reason, you need to accelerate a little as you reach the Apex of the curve to pull you through the curve. An inexperienced driver may panic in a curve as the lateral acceleration pushes his vehicle into the left lane. He might hit the brakes to slow the motion only to find that the problem actually increases. The proper way to take a sharp corner is to slow down before the curve, then accelerate at the Apex of it to bring the vehicle around. To increase your frustration, try following an inexperience driver as he drives on mountain roads. He maintains his speed to the corner and brakes at the Apex.

Lateral acceleration sensor
A detection device that signals the ECU when the vehicle is being subjected to high g-force from a turn; the signal voltage varies according to the amount of g-force
Lateral acceleration switch
Similar to a lateral acceleration sensor, but the switch provides a simple on-off signal, rather than the variable voltage signal provided by the sensor
Lateral air passage
A passage at the nozzle of a spray gun for shaping the spray pattern to a long or elongated oval
Lateral arm
A suspension member connecting the upright to the chassis.

Lateral atomization orifice
An additional passages at the nozzle of a spray gun for supplying additional air to break up the paint into smaller droplets
Lateral clearance
The smallest distance laterally between the tire and the nearest fixed point of the vehicle.
Lateral grip
The ability of a tire to maintain its course, or remain under normal steering control, while being subjected to directionally disturbing influences
Lateral impact
A side crash
Lateral link
A suspension link that is aligned to resist sideways motions in a wheel.
Lateral run-out
  1. Amount of side (i.e., side-to-side) movement of a rotating wheel, tire, or the rotor from the vertical.
  2. A tire assembly that does not run true to its plane; i.e., a damaged wheel moving in a wobbling, side to side manner.
  3. A measurement of the lateral change in position of the disk-brake-rotor surface during one revolution.
Lateral runout
Lateral stability
Limiting side movement. (1) Tread grooves running circumferentially around the tire resist side forces for maximum traction on sums. (2) Stabilizing tread plies limit side to side movement of the tread ribs caused by the expansion and contraction of tread areas as sidewalls flex. Also called Lateral grip
Lateral stiffness
The resistance of a vehicle body structure to lateral impact
Lateral tire clearance
The distance between the tire sidewall and the nearest point on the vehicle, reduced by any increase in rim offset and 1/2 any increase in tire section from the existing tire.
An artificial rubber compound used in tires, tubes, etc.
Latex tube
An bicycle inner tube for tires because of its lighter weight. Can be hard to repair, must be reinflated for each ride.
  1. A device for shaving the metal from the outside or inside of a cylinder.
  2. A machine tool used to spin, cut, and shape a metal part with a movable cutting tool.
A process of cutting rubber seals to a precise shape on a rotating drum.
The operation of placing a hull in the water by allowing it to slide down on greased skids, called launching ways.
Launching cradle
The support in which a ship rests during launching.
Law Of Absorption
Law Of Thermodynamics
A British term for a rest stop, i.e., a place at the side of a road where drivers can stop (to rest)
A certain weld metal thickness made of one or more passes.

Layer Control
This occurs in tanks when a high density fuel is mixed with a low density fuel.
Layer Noise
Layer of pure zinc
The top layer on hot-dip galvanized steel which, in contrast to zinc-iron alloy layers, almost completely consists of zinc
Layer thickness
A coating thickness (indicated in micrometers or millimetres)
Laying Out
Marking plates or shapes, for shearing, punching, etc.
Laying the bike down
A crash where you slide down on one side of the bike
Laying up
The process of adding several layers of fibreglass mat and resin to form a GRP shell
Design and set-up of warehouse storage.

Layrub coupling
A universal joint using four molded rubber inserts mounted on a round steel plate
  1. A British term for a Countershaft — the intermediate shaft between and parallel to the input and output shafts, carrying the two pairs of gearwheels which provide the required changes in gear ratio
  2. Second shaft in a direct drive transmission. It transfers power from the input shaft to the high gear pinion.
Lay-up resin
The resin substance used to laminate GRP parts. The resin available on the do-it-yourself market for fibreglass mat repairs also belongs to this category
Ship’s storeroom between decks.
Lazy tongs
  1. Any device with extensible arms (often in the form of a series of crossed, hinged bars) for handling objects at a distance.
  2. A specific type of pop rivet gun with such arms
Abbreviation for pound.
Abbreviation for Linked braking system
Abbreviation for Liquid Crystal Display. An optical, digital display used in the instrument panel
  1. Abbreviation for Light Commercial Vehicle
  2. Abbreviation for Long Combination Vehicle — In general, vehicles longer than a standard doubles rig (tractor and two 28-foot semitrailers). Examples of LCVs which are permitted in some U.S. western states and eastern toll roads Twin 48-foot trailers; triple 28-foot trailers.
  3. Abbreviation for Longer Combination Vehicle–A tractor pulling two or more semitrailers on an interstate roadway weighing more than 80,000 lbs., or a doubles rig with either trailer greater than 28.5 feet in length.
  1. Abbreviation for Lower dead center
  2. Abbreviation for local distribution company
Abbreviation for Light-duty Vehicle
Abbreviation for Loss Damage Waiver offered on car rental. Also called CDW (Collision Damage Waiver). An insurance protection plan in the event of damage to a rental vehicle.
The liquid that has percolated through the soil or other medium.
  1. [pronounced LEED] A short connecting wire which makes electrical contact between two points.
  2. [pronounced LEED] The distance from the thread crest of a bolt or screw to the adjacent crest of the same thread, i.e., the distance a screw thread advances in one full turn.
  3. [pronounced LED] A metal that is soft, toxic, heavy, malleable, and ductile. Used in storage batteries, and as an anti-knock agent added to gasoline in the form of Tetraethyl lead.
Lead-acid battery
An electricity producing system of lead plates and dilute sulfuric acid; used as a starter battery and as a traction battery in electric vehicles or as a source for lights because they are rechargeable, inexpensive, and durable
Lead acid rechargeable battery
Used in many light systems. Benefits include low cost and solid long term durability.
Lead and lag
The time between a valve opening and TDC or BDC (Valve lead), and the time between TDC or BDC and a valve closing (Valve lag); (compare Valve overlap)
Lead-antimony grid


Lead ballast
Lead burning
Joining two lead pieces by melting or fusing the metal where they touch each other
Lead deposit
Lead particles that separate from the battery plates during normal operation
Lead dioxide
A combination of lead and oxygen, as found in the storage battery. Lead dioxide is reddish brown in color
Lead Error
A variation in the distance between the threads of a screw.
Lead foot
Colloquial term for applying full acceleration as in, He lead-footed to the end of the track.
Leaded gasoline
Gasoline to which lead has been added as an anti-knock agent. Contains more than 0.05 grams of lead per US gallon or more than 0.005 grams of phosphorus per US gallon. The actual lead content of any given gallon may vary. Premium and regular grades are included, depending on the octane rating. Includes leaded Gasohol. Blendstock is excluded until blending has been completed. Alcohol that is to be used in the blending of gasohol is also excluded.
Leaded petrol
British term for Leaded gasoline
Leaded premium gasoline
Gasoline having an antiknock index: (R+M/2) greater than 90 and containing more than 0.05 grams of lead or 0.005 grams of phosphorus per gallon.
Leaded regular gasoline
Gasoline having an antiknock index: (R+M/2) greater than or equal to 87 and less than or equal to 90 and containing more than 0.05 grams of lead or 0.005 grams of phosphorus per gallon.
A wire or line of cord

Lead free
Substances like gasoline, paint, toys that have no lead content.

Lead-free gasoline
Until 1973 all new vehicles used gasoline that had Tetraethyl lead or some other lead Compound as an Additive to increase octane rating and reduce Knock or Detonation. In 1973, almost all new cars required lead-free gasoline (Unleaded gas). The exhaust valves in older cars were lubricated by the lead, so they were redesigned to accommodate the new gasoline. To offset the Detonation problem, the Compression ratio was also reduced. Lead-free gasoline was introduced to remove the lead in the exhaust fumes as a health hazard.
Lead-free petrol
British term for Lead free gasoline
Lead glazing
A faulty spark plug condition caused by molten lead salt deposits that solidify into a yellow, brown, or green glaze
Forward or at the front.

Leading arm
A Suspension system which has two long arms that extend forward from the pivot points of the arms. The wheels are attached to the forward end of these arms. The Citroën 2CV has this form of Independent suspension. Compare Trailing arm
Leading brake shoe
Leading edge
  1. The forward edge (e.g., of a body panel). Compare Trailing edge
  2. In reference to a wind energy conversion system, the area of a turbine blade surface that first comes into contact with the wind.
Leading link
A suspension link that is aligned to resist longitudinal motions in a wheel; it is mounted to the chassis behind the wheel. The axle is mounted at the front end of two short links that pivot at the bottom of solid forks, The link s are sprung to control movement. A long leading-link system has a complete fork that pivots behind the wheel
Leading power factor
A designation of the relative instantaneous direction of the currents to the voltages: (angle is 0 to -90°).
Leading shoe
  1. The British term for Primary shoe, the shoe of a brake drum system which pivots outwards into the approaching drum. Compare Trailing shoe
  2. A shoe whose friction surface leads ahead of the shoe pivot point and is forced against the drum by drum rotation.
Leading-trailing brake
A non-servo brake with one leading and one trailing brake shoe
Lead loading
The process of filling dents and damaged areas of the bodywork with body lead
Lead peroxide
A poisonous compound used, for example, as an electrode in batteries
Lead Screw
Lead sled


Mercury lead sled
Lead sled
  1. A typical body style of a custom car that became popular in the USA in the 1950s such as the Mercury; the term derives from the fact that large amounts of body lead are required to achieve the smooth body lines desired
  2. The process of smoothing and shaping body contours to remove lines between panels and minor imperfections. Often this would result in radically changed body shapes. Today plastic filler is used but originally lead was used.
Lead sulfate
Chemical compound; poisonous white crystals found in discharged batteries
Lead tolerance
Resistance to leaded fuel
Lead weight
A balance weight on a wheel rim. Also called Wheel weight.


Lead wire
A welding term referring to the electricity carrying wire from the power source to the electrode holder or to the ground clamps.


Leaf Chain
Is a chain manufactured from standard chain parts consisting of interlacing side plates and riveted pins. These chains are manufactured in accordance with ANSI standard B29.8. This chain is typically used in lifting and/or tensioning applications.
Lea Francis
A vehicle brand of which the 1950-54 Lea Francis 2.5 Litre Eighteen Sports models are milestone cars.
Leaf spring

Leaf springLeaf spring

A length of Flat spring steel plates bent in an arch usually with curled ends (eyes) to allow mounting to the frame. The eyes are usually filled with rubber bushings to reduce noise when the leafs flex. A bolt through the front eye secures the spring to the frame, and a pin through the rear eye attaches the spring to a Shackle. Another pin attaches the shackle to the frame. The pivoting shackle accommodates the changes in the effective length of the spring as it flexes. The axle housing is secured to the leaf spring with two U-bolts on either side. Some applications need only one leaf spring; but most have several leaves, each smaller than the other, nested together to help the main spring. Rebound clips are used at the ends to hold several leafs together to keep them from separating sideways. In a single-leaf application, sometimes two holes are drilled in the center of the main spring to mount a u-bolt which surrounds the axle. Also called semi-elliptic springs.

Leak detector
  1. Any device used to detect leaks in an air conditioning system (dye, solutions, electronic, propane, etc)
  2. Device used to detect and locate refrigerant leaks.
  3. Device or instrument such as a halide torch, an electronic sniffer, or soap solution used to detect leaks.
Leak down tester
The leak-down tester is similar to a compression tester, except the engine does not need to be cranked over. Instead, the leak-down tester pressurizes the cylinder and then measures the amount of cylinder pressure lost through worn piston rings. This lost pressure is called blow by and can indicate a defective valvetrain or blown head gasket.
Leak-off pressure
Manufacturer-specified pressure used to test injector leakage on a pop tester
Leak test
  1. A weak air/fuel mixture that has less fuel to air ratio. The opposite is rich.
  2. A lateral movement where one side lists more than the other.
Lean air-fuel mixture
A mixture of air and fuel in which there is more air and less fuel.

Lean Authority Limit Switch
A device developed by GM to monitor heated carburetor inlet air through an air cleaner TVS and to prevent the control unit from providing the carburetor with too lean a mixture, for better performance when starting from cold
Lean-burn engine
An engine which uses a lean mixture of fuel and air to increase fuel economy and reduce exhaust emissions.


Lean mixture
A mixture of air and fuel in which there is more air and less fuel. The opposite is Rich mixture.

Lean NOx Catalyst
(LNC) Catalyst designed to reduce nitrogen oxides from diesel or spark-ignited engine exhaust gases under net oxidizing conditions, i.e., in the presence of excessive amount of oxygen.
  1. Form of contract transferring the use of a vehicle in consideration of payment.
  2. Truck companies sometimes lease trucks or trailers from leasing companies. A long-term lease is equivalent to ownership, and the lessee is the operating authority.
Lease term
The duration of the lease. 24 and 36 month leases are the most common but you can lease a vehicle for 12, 48, or even 60 months if you choose. Remember that your monthly payment will change depending on the length of the lease.
The financial plan like renting where you pay a sum of money each month in return for the use of a vehicle instead of buying it outright. Open-end leases allow you to pay an additional amount at the end of the term so that you can own the vehicle. Sometimes this is called the buy-back option. Closed-end leases state that at the end of the term the ownership and possession of the vehicle must revert back to the leasing agency. Leasing used to be the domain of businesses; but because of the high cost of vehicles, leasing is now an option for the average consumer.

Apparel worn by those riding motorcycles. They consist of a leather jacket and leather trousers. Their purpose is to reduce the possibility of injury in the event of a fall; but they also provide warmth when riding because the rushing air will tend to cool off the rider.
Leather upholstery
Vehicle seating that is covered in leather. Usually found on upscale vehicles or as an extra-cost option.

  1. Abbreviation for Light Emitting Diode.
  2. A semiconductor device used for digital displays in the instrument panel and in taillights in place of bulbs because of their low power usage, durability, and brightness.
When referring to the side of a unit, the left side is always from the perspective of operation. In other words, when sitting in the Driver’s seat or when pushing a mower, the left side is the operator’s left side.
Left-hand drive
(LHD) A steering system where the steering wheel is located on the left-hand side of the vehicle; used for driving on the right, as in most parts of the world, except for the UK, Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan. The opposite is Right-hand drive (RHD)
Left handed monkey wrench
Left-handed monkey wrench
A fictitious tool. A monkey wrench is a pipe wrench, a wrench with an adjustable jaw.
Left hand gear lever

Left hand gear leverLeft hand gear lever

A device which is attached to the gear lever on the right side of the steering column which allows those who have no use of their right hand to shift gears.

Left hand monkey wrench
Left-handed monkey wrench
Left hand rule
To determine direction of lines of force, grasp conductor with left hand thumb extended in direction of current flow. Fingers indicate direction of lines of force
Left-hand thread
Most threads on bolts and screws have right-hand thread meaning that turning the bolt clockwise inserts or tightens the bolt; counterclockwise loosens or removes the bolt. But in left-hand thread the reverse is true. Turning the bolt clockwise loosens or removes the bolt. Left-hand thread is used on applications where the normal turning motion of the object is such that there is a possibility that the object could back out and be removed. For instance, the left pedal of a bicycle turns around the crankarm in a counterclockwise direction. If it had right-hand thread, the pedal could fall off. Thus all left pedals have left hand thread so that the motion of the pedal helps to keep the pedal tight on the crankarm.
Left thread
Leftward welding
Welding a seam towards the left
LegendClick logo for books on

A model of automobile from Acura

Legionnaire’s disease
Disease named after an outbreak of the illness at an American Legion convention in July, 1 976. The specific cause of the disease is uncertain.
Leg of fillet weld
Distance from point where the base metals touched to toe of the fillet.
Le Grand Livre
Literally the big book which lists every Paris-Brest-Paris bicycle finisher going back to 1891.
The amount of space available to move one’s legs in a vehicle
The LE-Jetronic system incorporates the advantages of direct airflow measurement with the enhancements afforded by electronics. Electromagnetically actuated injectors inject fuel onto the intake valves. Each cylinder has its own solenoid injector which is actuated once with every crankshaft revolution. The injectors are opened by control pulses delivered by the ECU; the length of these pulses depend on the quantity of inducted air, engine speed and other parameters. All of these parameters are detected by sensors and processed in the control unit
Le Mans
Pontiac Le MansClick image for books on
Pontiac Le Mans

A model of automobile manufactured by Pontiac division of General Motors



A new or used car with many defects
Length between perpendiculars
The length of a ship between the forward and after perpendiculars
Length Header
Length of Fastener
The length of a flat bearing surface fastener is the distance, in a line parallel to the axis, from the bearing surface to the extreme point. The length of a countersunk head fastener is the distance, in a line parallel to the axis, from the largest diameter of the bearing surface to the extreme point.
Length, overall
The extreme length of a ship measured from the foremost point of the stem to the aftermost part of the stern
  1. A specially treated glass through which a welder may look at an intense flame without being injured by the harmful rays, or glare, radiating from this flame.
  2. A glass or plastic front cover of a headlight through which the light converges or diverges.
  3. A glass or plastic covering of a signal light, taillight, backup light, etc.
Length Tolerance
The length within which a new chain must be when measured under a given load.
Lentil Head Screw
Obsolete term for oval head screw
A model of automobile manufactured by Buick Division of General Motors from 1959-2005
The individual or party signing the lease contract and taking responsibility for the vehicle and lease payments, i.e., the company or individual which leases vehicles.
The individual, dealer, business, manufacturer, or financial institution that owns the vehicle and offers it for leasing.

Less Than Load
(LTL) Situations in which general freight from various shippers is combined into a truck load.
Let in
To engage, such as to engage the clutch slowly
Let out
To release, such as to let some air out of the tire or to release the clutch by pushing in the clutch pedal.
Letter drill
Letter drills
A series of drills in which each drill size is designated by a letter of the alphabet A, B, C, etc.
Letter of credit
(L/C) A method of paying for goods, where the buyer establishes credit with a local bank, clearly describing the goods to be purchased. Upon receipt of documentation, the bank is either paid by the buyer or takes title to goods and transfers funds to the seller. See Export Letter Of Credit.
  1. Abbreviation for Low-emission vehicle
  2. Abbreviation for Low Emission Vehicle Standards.
  1. The condition where an item is perpendicular to the force of gravity.
  2. The degree of importance, quality, or value. For example a manufacturer may produce the same car in two or more levels of accessories and options.
Level control
A device that maintains the level of a vehicle when it is loaded at one end. When your trunk is heavily loaded, the front of your car is much higher and the headlights are not shining where they should. Level control compensates for the load by adding more compressed air to the shock absorbers to raise the back of the car.

Level crossing
Intersecting roads or railroad tracks that are on the same plane rather than one of them in an overpass.
Leveled suspension
A means of eliminating the ‘squat’ of the rear suspension under load by a hydraulic self-leveling unit between the chassis and the center of the rear axle. Standard on up-scale automobiles.
Level gauge
Level Indicator
Placing a variable-thickness course of materials to restore horizontal and vertical uniformity to existing pavements, normally continuous throughout the project. British spelling is levelling.

Leveling control
Leveler (Leveller)
  1. A component in continuous sheet galvanizing lines by means of which steel strips are stretched and leveled
  2. A dock plate that adjusts to the height of a trailer.
Level of service
A standard of performance defined by a local government detailing the types and amounts of winter maintenance needed to achieve desirable road conditions
Level out
To work on a panel to remove irregularities with the use of hammer and dolly or by filling and sanding, etc.
Level Paving
Level plug
A threaded plug in the side of a gearbox or rear axle to determine if sufficient oil has been used during filling
Level sensor
Level tube
In a tool which is designed to determine if an object is parallel with the ground, there is a glass cylinder (i.e., the level tube) which contains a liquid and a small air bubble. The object is level when the bubble is centered within the tube.
Level warning
Level warning indicator
Level warning light
Level Warning Switch Assembly
A simple machine comprising an arm and a pivot.

The use of a lever and fulcrum to create a mechanical advantage. The brake pedal is an automotive part that employs leverage.
Leverage diagonal cutting pliers
Lever and pivot
A release mechanism in which a pivoted lever attached to the clutch cable disengages the clutch by pushing the pressure plate away from the clutch plates, allowing them to slip. Lever and pivot may act directly or through a pushrod.
Levering bar
A metalworking tool shaped like a large tire iron with flat hooked ends for levering bent panels back into position
Lever Combo
Lever lock
Lever strut
Lever-type shock absorber
A spring damper operated by a lever arm from a chassis-mounted hydraulic damper unit.

A big multi-cylinder dual sport bike
Abbreviation for Low Emissions Vehicle Program
LexusClick image for books on

An upscale model of automobile manufactured by Toyota including ES 250 (1990-91), ES 300 (1992-2003), ES 330 (2004-06), ES 350 (2007-08), GS 300 (1993-2006), GS 350 (2007-08), GS 400 (1998-2000), GS 430 (2001-07), GS 450h (2007), GX 470 (2003-07), IS 250 (2006-08), IS 300 (2001-05), IS 350 (2006-08), LS 400 (1990-2000), LS 430 (2001-06), LS 460 (2007), LX 450 (1996-97), LX 470 (1998-2007), RX 300 (1999-2003), RX 330 (2004-06), RX 350 (2007-08), RX 400h (2006-07), SC 300 (1992-2000), SC 400 (1992-2000), and SC 430 (2002-07)

Abbreviation for Low Fan Control
Abbreviation for Low Speed Fuel Pump Control
Abbreviation for left hand
Abbreviation for Left hand drive.
L head
L head engine
L-head engine

L-head engineL-head engine

An engine having both valves in the block and on the same side of the cylinder. The arrangement of the valves in the block and the combustion chamber forms an L shape. This type of valve train was used in the early years of automotive engineering and is no longer found (with some minor exceptions) in modern engines. Compare F-head engine where one valve is in the head and the other is in the block; and I-head engine where both valves are in the head and none in the block. Also called side-valve engine.


Bosch LH-Jetronic system measure air mass (weight of air) with a hot-wire sensor instead of measuring airflow with a vane, or flap, type air volume sensor used on L-Jet systems. The H is short for heiss hot
Abbreviation for Liquide Hydraulique Minerale
Abbreviation for Lower Heating Value
Abbreviation for Load index
An amount payable in money or by future services to be rendered. See: Absolute Liability.
Alternate spelling for License.
Alternate spelling for Licence. Document giving official permission to do something.

Licensed Weight
The maximum gross weight (vehicle plus cargo) a vehicle is licensed to carry.
License plate
A plate (issued by a government) located on the back (and sometimes also the front) of a vehicle showing its registration. The British term is number plate.
License plate frame
A metal or plastic cover which surrounds and protects the outside of a license plate. Some of them feature the name of a car dealership, state or province, while others have a series of lights surrounding it.
License plate lamp
License plate light
Licensing Agency
Licensing Center
The right to hold another’s goods or property until a claim is met.

A boat which is used when the ship is in danger and has to be abandoned
Life Monitor
Life To First Repair
The output from PDS program which is equivalent to the number of trips the pallet will last before needing repair.
Abbreviation for Last In, First Out Inventory allocation method that selects newest inventory first.
  1. The action of the rear end of the vehicle to rise during braking.
  2. The amount by which a poppet valve rises when opened.
  3. The aerodynamic force caused by greater pressure above the car than below it and having the effect of loss of traction and stability; (counteracted by a suitable spoiler).
  4. The force that pulls a wind turbine blade, as opposed to drag.
  5. Maximum distance valve head is raise off its seat.
  6. A device for raising equipment into a vehicle, e.g., a scooter lift will raise a scooter from the ground, swing it around and place it in the back of a van.
  7. To make a template from measurements taken from the job.
Lift Axle
  1. An extra, unpowered axle needed only when the vehicle is loaded, allowing it to meet federal and state vehicle weight standards. The lift axle is mounted to an air spring suspension that raises the axle when it is not required.
  2. An air-powered axle which, when lowered, will both convert a vehicle into a multi-axle unit and provide greater load carrying capacity.
Liftback station wagon

Liftback station wagonLiftback station wagon

Small cars came in station wagon form too. The idea was the same as bigger versions, but the conventional tailgate was replaced by a single lift-up hatch. For obvious reasons, compact and subcompact wagons had only two rows of seats instead of the three that had been available in many full-size models. In more recent years, the term “station wagon” has been replaced with “crossover”.

A hard surfaced short shaft with a radius or roller at one end that rides on a cam lobe

Lifter foot
The part of the lifter that contacts the camshaft
The rear opening of a station wagon or hatchback which opens from the bottom and hinges at the top. The British term is tailgate.
  1. Etching in which the paint surface is roughened or disintegrated in small patches or a wide area because of an attack from bird droppings, soap deposits, industrial fallout, etc.
  2. Softening and penetration of an adhesive film by the solvents or plasticizing oils of another film, which result in raising, wrinkling and loss of adhesion
  3. The taking on cargoes of oil or refined product at the terminal or transshipment point by tankers and barges
Lifting platform take-up point
Any of the lifting points specified by the manufacturer for supporting the car on a lifting platform. Only the points specified provide the rigidity required to lift the car without damaging adjacent components
Lift Jib
A forklift boom attachment that allows the operator to lift and move pipe or other bulky objects. Also called a porta crane or boom.
Lift Layer
A compacted thickness of material placed by a piece of equipment in a single pass.
Lift Off Container
A cargo container that is loaded and unloaded with a crane, most cargo containers are of this type, the exceptions are roll-offs and the air freight container.
Liftoff effect
In eddy-current testing; severe signal changes associated with small changes in distance between probe and test item
Lift pump


Lift rocker arm
Lift-The-Dot fastener
A registered trade name for a Snap fastener
Lift-throttle oversteer
A handling characteristic that causes the rear tires to lose some of their cornering grip when the throttle is released during hard cornering.
Lift truck
A vehicle that is used to move and transfer product/freight in a distribution center, warehouse, terminal, manufacturing site, or dock. Often referred to as a forklift, Towmotor®, or Hi-Lo®.


  1. Something that is easy to operate.
  2. Something that has relatively little weight.
  3. A small window as in sidelight, quarter-light, skylight etc.
  4. A vehicle’s window, esp. the rear window called a Backlight.
  5. An illumination device.
  6. A British term for window.
Light-alloy piston
Light-alloy wheel
A bar with a series of lights (driving lights, fog lights, and/or spot lights) mounted on it. The bar is mounted either on the front of the vehicle or on its roof.
Light box
Light braking
The action of applying the brakes gently and intermittently. Opposite to Heavy braking
Light bulb
A manmade source of light. The term is often used when referring to a Bulb or Tube
Light cable
Cable which does not require high strength. Opposite to Heavy cable
Light clutch
Having a smooth or easy operation, e.g., requiring little effort to push down the pedal on cars and trucks; or squeeze the lever on motorcycles. Opposite to Heavy clutch
Light Crude
Crude oil with a low specific gravity and high API gravity due to the presence of a high proportion of light hydrocarbon fractions and low metallic compound.
Light displacement
The displacement in tons of the ship complete with all outfit, equipment, and machinery on board but excluding all fuel, water in tanks, cargo, stores, passengers, dunnage, and the crew and their effects. The light condition displacement includes the lubricating oil for the machinery and water in the boilers at steaming level. Also called light weight.
Something that is built for light loads or non-severe use. Opposite to Heavy-duty
Light-duty truck
A vehicle weighing less than 10,000 lbs. Compare Heavy-duty truck and Medium-duty truck
Light-duty vehicle
(LDV) A passenger car, motorcycle, or small truck weighing less than 8,500 lbs
Light emitting diode
Used in taillights in place of bulbs because of their low power usage, durability, and brightness.
Light Ends
The more volatile products of petroleum refining; e.g., Butane, Propane, gasoline.
Lightened valve
Lightened valves
Valves in which all possible metal has been ground away to reduce weight. This will allow higher rpm without Valve float.
Lightening Hole
A hole cut in a member to reduce its weight.
  1. An electric, push-button device on the instrument panel which, when depressed, produces a red-hot filament for lighting cigarettes, etc.
  2. A flat-bottomed boat for transporting cargo between ship and shore.
Lighter aboard ship
(LASH) small barges for carrying cargo between ship and shore
Something unaffected by light
Light filler panel
A term used to describe a mode of driving which uses gentle pressure on the accelerator, thus maximizing fuel economy
Light gas oils
Liquid petroleum distillates heavier than Naphtha, with an approximate boiling range from 205°C to 343°C.
Lighting-up hours
The period commencing one half-hour after sunset on any day and expiring one half-hour before sunrise on the next day.
Lighting system
The part of the electrical system that includes the all wiring, switches and vehicle lights (headlights, sidelights, signal lights, tail lights, instrument lights, courtesy lights, side marker lights, fog lights, back up lights, etc.).
Light-off temperature
The temperature at which a catalytic converter achieves a 50% conversion rate; typically near 250°C
Light oil
Lighter fuel oils distilled off during the refining process. Virtually all petroleum used in internal combustion and gas-turbine engines is light oil. Includes fuel oil numbers 1 and 2, Kerosene, and jet fuel.
Light paint
Thinly coated. Opposite to Heavy paint
Light panel
Light rail
An electric railway with a light volume traffic capacity compared to heavy rail. Light rail may use exclusive or shared rights-of-way, high or low platform loading, and multi-car trains or single cars. Also known as street car, trolley car, and tramway.
Light Rapid Transit
(LRT) Fast efficient travel via light rail or guided bus.
Light sheet metal
Thin sheet metal for average use.
Lights-on reminder
A buzzer, chime, or voice which alerts you that you have left the car lights on upon shutting the engine off.
Light steering
Having an easy operation, e.g., requiring little effort to turn the steering wheel
Light surround
Light switch
Light traffic
A road with few moving vehicles. Opposite to Heavy traffic
Light truck
  1. A vehicle weighing less than 14,000 lbs.
  2. Typically a vehicle under 3 tons, which includes pickups, passenger vans, and most 4WD vehicles and for which one does not need a special license. Compare HGV
  3. Department of Transportation definition: All single unit two-axle, four-tire trucks, including pickup trucks, sports utility vehicles, vans, motor homes, etc.
  4. Energy Information definition: all trucks weighing 8,500 pounds or less.
Light unit


Light Valve
Light van
Typically a vehicle under 3 tons, which includes pickups, passenger vans, and most 4wd vehicles and for which one does not need a special license. Compare HGV
Light vehicles
Passenger cars and light trucks.
Light warning light
Light water
Ordinary water: (H2O), as distinguished from heavy water or deuterium oxide: (D2O).
Light weight
Lignum Vitae
A hard, heavy wood from a tropical American tree found in the West Indies. It is used in the head of a mallet.
Limber hole
A small drain hole or slot in a frame or plate for the purpose of preventing water or oil from collecting
The performance limit of a car’s chassis, tires, etc.; typically experienced during sharp cornering at high speeds.

Limit control
  1. A control that automatically responds to changes in temperature, pressure, flow or level for limiting the operation of the controlled equipment. This device is not considered an operating control.
  2. Control used to open or close electrical circuits as temperature or pressure limits are reached.
Limit cycle control
Limited grade
Limited-slip axle/center differential
Limited slip differential
An axle differential or central differential incorporating a locking or slip-limiting mechanism to counter wheel spin. Limited slip means that some power is always applied to each of the wheels, even when one of them is on a slippery surface like ice or mud.

Limited-slip differential
A differential unit designed to provide superior traction by transferring driving torque, when one wheel is spinning, to the wheel that is not slipping. A Cone or clutch disc locks the two independent axle shafts together so that they both turn at the same time. There is a minimal amount of slippage (thus the name limited-slip) to allow for differential action.
Limited-speed Motorcycle
  1. In Canada, a limited-speed motorcycle can be operated with any class of driver’s license. Learners require a Class 6 or Class 8 motorcycle learner’s license. Limited-speed motorcycles cannot be operated with any other type of learner’s license.
  2. A limited-speed motorcycle has
    1. a motor with a piston displacement of 50 cc or less, or a power source that produces a maximum of 1.5 kW
    2. a power drive system that does not require clutching or shifting after the drive system is engaged
    3. a maximum speed of 70 km/h on level ground
    4. a maximum weight of 95 kg
    5. wheels with a diameter of at least 254 mm
Limiter Cap
Limiting valve
Limits of adhesion
  1. A term used by sports car enthusiasts to describe the point of which a car begins to lose grip on the road while making a turn in a curve.
  2. The ability of a vehicle to respond to an emergency situation such as roads covered in rain, oil, or ice by steering or braking when needed.
Limit Switch
Limit Value
Abbreviation for Limousine.



  1. The literal meaning is a cloak. In France, Limousine means any passenger vehicle. An early dictionary defined limousine as an auto with a permanently enclosed compartment for 3-5, with a roof projecting over a front driver’s seat. However, modern dictionaries drop the separate compartment idea and refer to limousines as large luxury autos, often chauffeur-driven. Some have a movable division window between the driver and passenger compartments, but that isn’t a requirement.
  2. A chauffeured sedan designed for passenger comfort, often with a longer wheelbase and usually with a division between the driver and the passengers. The rear compartment has luxurious features with separate controls for heating and the opening and closing of the glass or wood division.
Limp home
Limp-home mode
  1. A standby circuit which allows a vehicle with electronic system trouble to be driven home slowly.
  2. When a vehicle is operated by an unauthorized person, an alarm system will shut down some engine functions so that the vehicle’s maximum speed will be greatly reduced thus making the vehicle useless to the thief and/or easily recovered.
  3. A feature of Cadillac’s Northstar engine that even when it has run out of coolant, the car can be driven at moderate speeds.


LincolnClick image for books on

A vehicle brand of the Ford Motor Company founded in 1917 of which the following models are classic cars

  • 1920 through 1940 models L, KA, KB, and K
  • 1941 model 168 H
  • 1942 model 268 H

The 1952-54 Capri models are milestone cars. Includes the following models:

  • Aviator (2003-05)
  • Blackwood (2002)
  • Capri (1952-1959)
  • Continental (1961-2002)
  • Cosmopolitan (1949-1954)
  • Custom (1941-1942, 1955)
  • K-series (1931-1939)
  • Lido (1950-1951)
  • Lincoln (1946-1951)
  • Lincoln-Zephyr (1936-1942)
  • Lincoln-Zephyr Continental (1940-1942, 1946-1948)
  • LS (2000-06)
  • L-series (1920-1930)
  • Mark LT (2006-2008)
  • Mark Series (1956-1998)
  • Mark VII (19__-92)
  • Mark VIII (1993-98)
  • MKX (2007)
  • MKZ (2007-08)
  • Navigator (1998-2008)
  • Navigator L (2007-08)
  • Premiere (1956-1960)
  • Sport (1949-1951)
  • Town Car (1981-2007)
  • Versailles (1977-1980)
  • Zephyr (2006)
Lincoln Continental
Lincoln ContinentalClick image for books on
Lincoln Continental

A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models are classic cars. The 1946-48, 1961-64 models are milestone cars. The 1958-60, 1965-67 Convertibles are milestone cars. The 1961-67 Custom Limos (Lehman Peterson) models are milestone cars.

The path through a corner that best accommodates a late braking point, a high cornering speed, and the fastest-possible exit speed out of a corner.

Trucker slang for Extra powerful amplifier used to increase CB transmitter output as in ‘I want to buy me a million watt linear’.
Linear-ball bearing
A bearing that has several balls where a few of them at a time ride along a flat channel and give support.
Linear lamp
Linear pull brakes
A generic term for a V-Brake. Shimano owns the copyright on V-Brake so any component company which makes a brake similar to Shimano’s must use this term to describe it.
Linear source lamp
Linear wiper system
A system in which the wiper arm is attached both at the top and bottom and, instead of describing the usual arc, is guided in a straight line from one side of the windshield to the other
Line certificate
Line drawing
An outline sketch without shading or color.
Line Load
The weight of a unit load concentrated along a narrow area across the full length or width of the pallet.
Movement of freight between cities that are usually more than 1,000 miles apart, not including pickup and delivery service.
Line pressure
Line pressure is fed to the shifting components when they are to be applied; it increases in proportion to engine speed and is the highest pressure in the hydraulic control system
  1. A thin section placed between two parts, such as a replaceable cylinder liner in an engine. wet liners are the complete cylinder wall where the outside of the liner makes up part of the cooling system to allow coolant circulation. dry liners are pressed into the block and are not surrounded by coolant.
  2. A cargo ship which sails between regular ports of call on a schedule.
  3. A flat or tapered strip of steel placed under a plate or shape to bring the member in line with another which it overlaps. A filler.
Liner blast horn
The form of a vehicle or ship as represented by its molded surface.
Line spanner
Lines, plan
The plans that show the shape or form of the ship
Line voltage
Voltage supplied by the power company or voltage supplied as input to the device
  1. The interior trim, e.g., of doors and convertible tops.
  2. A friction material (e.g., on brake shoes, brake discs and pads, clutch disc, and automatic transmission brake bands).
  3. A special friction material with which brake shoes or brake pads are lined. It takes the wear when the brake shoe is forced against the drum or rotor.
Lining fade
Brake fade caused by a drop in the brake lining coefficient of friction as a result of excessive heat.
Lining table
The outermost part of the brake shoe that supports the brake lining friction material.
Lining Wear Sensor
Smoothing sheet metal using power tools, e.g., with an angle grinder and emery belt or grinding disk. Typical applications are dressing of weld joints and removal of flaking rust to clean up repair areas prior to welding
A suspension member that has a single Diagnostic linkDiaphragm linkDrag link, Half linkInter-cell linkJoint at each end

Any series of rods, yokes, levers, pedal, bars or links used to transmit motion from one unit to another.

Linkage power steering
A linkage-type, power-assisted steering system in which a conventional manual system is assisted by hydraulic or pneumatic effort applied directly to a steering linkage such as a relay lever or track rod
Linking cable
Link Connector
Linked braking system
(LBS) Brake system designed so the front and rear calipers are applied simultaneously when either the motorcycle handlebar brake levers or foot brake pedals are applied.
Link Plate
One of the side plates of either a pin link or a roller link in a Roller Chain.
Link suspension
The edge of a sheet metal panel folded at right angles to the basic panel contours; often used to mount the panel to an adjacent panel, e.g., for spot welding
Lip molding
Ornamental bright trim connecting the outer edge of the fender to the inner fender panel or fender well. Reinforces a fender wheel cut. Also called wheel-lip molding.
Lip seal with garter spring
A product that is normally solid or a gas but has been pulverized into a liquid state.
Liquefied natural gas

  1. Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been condensed to a liquid by reducing its temperature cryogenically to -162°C at atmospheric pressure.
  2. Methane, possible future alternative fuel for spark ignition engines
Liquefied petroleum gas
(LPG) A mixture of low-boiling hydrocarbons found in natural gas and produced from crude oil. It exists in a liquid state at ambient temperatures when under moderate pressures: (less than 1.5 MPa. Major components are Propane (min. 85% content in the U.S.), Butane, Propylene, Ethane, Ethylene Butylene, Isobutane, and isobutylene. It is used principally as a feedstock for the chemical industry, home heating fuel, and motor vehicle fuel.
Liquefied refinery gases
(LRG) Liquefied petroleum gases fractionated from refinery or still gases. Through compression and/or refrigeration, they are retained in the liquid state. The reported categories are ethane/ethylene, Propane/Propylene, normal Butane/Butylene, and Isobutane/isobutylene. Excludes Still gas.
  1. Any substance which assumes the shape of the vessel in which it is placed without changing volume.
  2. Substance whose molecules move freely among themselves, but do not tend to separate like those of gases.
  3. Any material which has a fluidity greater than that of 300 penetration asphalt when tested in accordance with ASTM Test for Penetration for Bituminous Materials. When not otherwise identified, the term liquid shall include both flammable and combustible liquids.
Liquid absorbent
Chemical in liquid form which has the property to take on or absorb other fluids.
Liquid ballast
A form of ballasting which uses a liquid — usually water mixed with calcium chloride to prevent freezing and increase specific gravity.

Liquid collector
A medium-temperature solar thermal collector, employed predominantly in water heating, which uses pumped liquid as the heat-transfer medium.
An engine that is cooled by the passage of water or oil. The opposite is air-cooled
Liquid-cooled engine
An internal combustion engine cooled by moving a liquid, such as ethylene glycol and water, through ports cast in the engine.
Liquid cooling
Use of liquid piped through water jackets, thermostat, and radiator to dissipate heat.
Liquid desuperheater
Valve that permits small flow of refrigerant to enter low side of systems to cool suction gas.
Liquid Gas Tank
A cargo body style characterized by tankers which can carry only liquids or gases in bulk.
Liquide Hydraulique Minérale
(LHM) A green hydraulic fluid used by Citroën for some of their suspension systems
Liquid gasket
A room temperature vulcanizing gasket sealer (from a tube)
Liquid honing
A metal finishing process by forcing a stream of liquid, in which a very fine abrasive is suspended, against the surface to be finished.
Liquids in Bulk cargo
Truck cargo of liquid in a tank that is not otherwise packaged.
Liquid indicator
Device located in liquid line which provides a glass window through which liquid flow may be watched.
Liquid line
  1. The line between the drier outlet and the expansion valve.
  2. Sometimes, the line between the condenser outlet and the drier inlet
  3. Tube which carries liquid refrigerant from the condenser or liquid receiver to the refrigerant control mechanism.
Liquid nitrogen
Nitrogen in liquid form used as a low-temperature refrigerant in expendable or chemical refrigerating systems.
Liquid paint
Paint which contains solvents and cures at room temperature or by baking
Liquid pump
A machine used to raise liquid from a low to a high energy level by transferring energy to the medium being pumped
Liquid receiver
Cylinder (container) connected to condenser outlet for storage of liquid refrigerant in a system.
Liquid receiver service valve
Two or three-way manual valve located at the outlet of the receiver and used for installation and service purposes. It is sometimes called the king valve.
Liquids in Bulk
A cargo category describes the contents of liquid tanks that are not otherwise packaged. Examples include brine, gasoline, whiskey mash, milk, driller’s mud (90% water), oil, septic waste, molten sulfur, sulfuric acid, water, tallow, live fish if transported in water.
Liquid traction
A special liquid that is applied to the tires of Drag racers to provide superior traction.
Liquid-vapor valve refrigerant cylinder
Dual hand valve on refrigerant cylinders which is used to release either gas or liquid refrigerant from the cylinder.
Liquid withdrawal
Drawing LPG (Propane) from the bottom of the tank to insure delivery of liquid LPG (propane). Withdrawal from the top of the tank will deliver LPG (propane) in the gaseous state.
Liquid withdrawal system
A method of piping where liquid is taken from bottom of an LP gas tank and converted into gas by a vaporizer


Solution used in absorption refrigeration.

A length of iron with an L shape when viewed from the end. Also called Angle iron
Abbreviation for Liability Insurance Supplement offered on car rental.
To lean to one side so that the centerline plane of a vehicle or ship is not vertical. Also called heel.
Listing wire
A wire or cord used to make the bead around the edge of upholstery.
List number
The part number stamped on the body of the carburetor, used for identification and can be cross-referenced to obtain the model number
List price
The price suggested by the factory, as quoted in the price list, as opposed to the actual sales price which would include delivery and set-up charges plus taxes.
See Litre
Lithium base grease
A chassis and wheel bearing grease using lithium as a base. Not compatible with sodium base grease.
Lithium bromide
Chemical commonly used as the absorbent in absorption cooling system. Water would then be the refrigerant.
Lithium grease
A chassis and wheel bearing grease using lithium as a base. Not compatible with sodium base grease.

Lithology is the study of rocks. It is important for exploration and drilling crews to have an understanding of lithology as it relates to the production of gas and oil. Often, cuttings have to by analyzed to make important decisions about a well.
  1. Metric measurement of capacity equivalent to 2.11 US pints. Five litres equals 1.32 U.S. gallon or 1.1 Imperial gallon. One Imperial quart equals 1.136 litre and a US quart equals 0.946 litre. American spelling is liter
  2. Metric unit of volume which equals 61.023744 cu. in. When converting from engine size, divide the cubic inch displacement by 61.023744 to obtain the number of litres (e.g., 428 cu. in. = 7 litres). Multiply the number of litres by 61.023744 to obtain the cubic inch displacement. 61.023744 is obtained from 1000 divided by 2.543
Little end
The small end of the connecting rod.

Live axle
  1. A driven axle upon which the wheels are firmly attached. Usually there are two half shafts with a differential in between. Each axle drives the wheel it supports. Live axles are non-independent, i.e., when one wheel moves up or down, it affect the movement of the other. They are used on rear-wheel-drive vehicles. In contrast, a dead axle is not driven.
  2. A solid rear axle as opposed to an independent rear suspension.


Live bottom
Live Rack
Slanted rack that allows for easier picking. Items are put into the high end of the rack and then picked from the low end. Desirable for FIFO picking procedures.
Livestock Body
Truck or trailer designed for the transportation of farm animals. Sometimes they have double decks. Often has slatted or perforated sides.
Livestock Carrier
This trailer cargo body style typically has slotted or slatted sides. It may have a double deck. These trailers sometimes have ‘possum bellies,’ compartments in the bottom for holding smaller animals.
Live wire


Term by Bosch to describe fuel injection system controlled by the air flowing through a sensor with a movable vane, or flap, which indicates engine load. The L is for luft air. Later versions of L-jet are equipped with a Lambda (oxygen) sensor for better mixture control. Bosch originally used the term Air-Flow Controlled (AFC) Injection to denote L-Jet system in order to differentiate them from pressure controlled D-Jetronic system
L-Jetronic air flow meter
Airflow meter used on the L-Jetronic system
L-Jetronic fuel injection system
An electronically controlled fuel injection system. Fuel is supplied by an intermittent-action L-Jetronic fuel injection system, which uses engine speed and intake airflow as its main control parameters. Each cylinder has its own solenoid injector, which is opened by control pulses delivered by the electronic control unit; the length of these pulses depends on the control parameters. All of these parameters are detected by sensors and processed in the control unit. This fuel injection system is employed by BMW in the K 75 model
L-Jetronic system
An electronically controlled fuel injection system. Fuel is supplied by an intermittent-action L-Jetronic fuel injection system, which uses engine speed and intake airflow as its main control parameters. Each cylinder has its own solenoid injector, which is opened by control pulses delivered by the electronic control unit; the length of these pulses depends on the control parameters. All of these parameters are detected by sensors and processed in the control unit. This fuel injection system is employed by BMW in the K 75 model
Abbreviation for Lean NOx Catalyst
Abbreviation for liquefied natural gas
LNG carrier
Liquefied natural gas carrier.
  1. Something to be lifted, carried, transported, or accelerated.
  2. The amount of material transported.
  3. The amount of power carried by an electric circuit.
  4. The resistance overcome by an engine when it is driving a machine.
  5. Abbreviation for Calculated Load Value
Load alteration effect
The reactions in the drive train or, in FWD vehicles, in the steering, due to sudden load alteration. Compare Torque steer
Load and inflation table
A chart in the tire manufacturer’s data book listing the carrying capacity of a tire at each of several air pressure increments from the lowest range of practical usage to its maximum capacity.
Load at installed height
The specified range of force required to compress a spring to its installed height usually expressed in terms of so many pounds of force at so many inches
Load bars
A tool used to secure freight in a trailer.
Load base
Used in calculating load distribution; it is the distance between the center of the rear axle (or center between tandem axles) and the center of payload.

Load-Bearing flue gas baffle
A flue gas baffle which adds support, strength or rigidity to a heat exchanger or flue.
Load Bearing Surface
The actual area of material in contact with and supporting a unit load.
Load capacity
Load Classification
A classification of drive loads based on the intensity of shock that is imposed on the drive.
Load compensating resistor
A resistor unit in series with an electric brake control which can be preset to limit current to achieve brake balance.
Load Condition
Load-controlled power distribution
A drive torque distribution, as established e.g., by a Torsen differential
Load distribution
The distribution of load on truck or trailer chassis. The relationship of the gross load on the front and rear axles to the total gross load.
Load distribution calculation
The payload on the front axle is equal to the total payload multiplied by the Load base (in inches) and divided by the wheelbase (in inches). To complete the calculation of load per axle, it is necessary to obtain the unladen weight of the vehicle and estimate its breakdown by axle.
Loaded displacement
The displacement of a ship when floating at her greatest allowable draft
Loaded radius
Measurement in inches from the wheel axle centerline to the ground when the tire is properly inflated for the load. Also called Static loaded radius
Loaded runout
Radial runout that appears only when the tire is supporting the mass of the car. Loaded runout is caused by stiff sections accidentally built into the tire sidewall.
Loaded tourer
A bicycle whose structure, geometry, and equipment is designed to allow a cyclist to travel with 50 pounds of gear.
Load enrichment
  1. An off road vehicle with a large bucket or shovel on the front to move material, particularly dirt or debris.
  2. A hydraulic mechanism mounted on a trailer or behind the cab of a truck or tractor used to load cargo onto the trailer or truck. Some logging industry trucks are equipped with log loaders for loading fresh cut logs.
Load factor
  1. The weight in pounds or kilograms loaded onto a trailer.
  2. A term used loosely to describe the compactness or over good usage of trailer space.
  3. The computed value of weight loaded into trailers factored by the miles the trailer travels. If trailers are loaded to full capacity, the cost is lower because fewer trailers are needed and fewer miles are traveled per pound or kilogram of freight.
Load floor
  1. The cargo-carrying area of a van or truck.
  2. The floor of the luggage area of an station wagon or hatchback
Load floor extension
A molded tray that folds out of the rear luggage area and provides an extended load floor which hangs out over the bumper. It can also be used for picnics.
Load horsepower
Load index
(LI) coded number on the sidewall of a tire to indicate the maximum load the tire may carry at a given speed under manufacturer’s conditions
The amount with which something is loaded.

Loading allowance
A tariff provision which provides an allowance, usually a fixed sum per weight, to a shipper for loading a carrier’s trailer.
Loading Frequency
Loading frequency is the number of times per unit of time that the chain is exposed to a complete cycle of loading. A complete loading cycle normally occurs when a particular link moves completely around the system and returns to its starting point.
Load line
The line on a ship which indicates the maximum depth to which it can sink when loaded with cargo. Also known as marks.
Load line certificate
Load Manifest
A form for tallying weight and the number of shipments loaded on a trailer that is destined for another service center.
Load overhang
The distance a load extends beyond the rear of a vehicle. It also requires a red flag or red reflector at the end of the load.
Load proportional brake control
A system or device which regulates the input force to the brakes on an axle in proportion to the load on that axle.
Load range
  1. An index of tire strength which replaces the older (discontinued) ply rating system.
  2. A discontinued measurement of the number of plies at which a tire is rated.
    Load Range Ply rating
    A 2
    B 4
    C 6
    D 8
    E 10
    F 12
    G 14
    H 16
Load rating
The maximum amount that a vehicle can carry with the tires and springs it has. Also called Load index

Load resistor
Load Sensing Proportioning Valve
(LSPV) a hydraulic system control valve that works like a proportioning valve, but also takes into consideration the amount of weight carried by the rear axle
Load-sensitive proportioning valve
A valve which regulates hydraulic pressure to the rear wheels as a function of chassis height-to-axle distance. A vehicle weight transfer during hard braking increases this distance and, via a spring or rod linkage, will close the valve to reduce braking pressure at the rear wheels; also, a heavily loaded car will have more braking power at the rear wheels
Load synchromesh
Load test
A test applied to a battery. Although the battery indicates 12 volts or more, it may not meet the amperage for which it is rated. A tester with a variety of amperage loads can be applied to determine if the battery is good.
Load Tester
Load Torque
Load transfer
Load transference
The changing of the amount of load distributed to each axle while the vehicle is in motion, due to the effects of braking, cornering ascending, or descending grades, etc.


Load waterline
The line on the lines plan of a ship, representing the intersection of the ship’s form with the plane of the water surface when the ship is floating at the summer freeboard draft or at the designed draft. Also called marks
An off-center or Eccentric enlargement on a shaft which converts rotary motion to Reciprocating. Also called a cam

Lobe-type supercharger
A positive displacement compressor with two lobed rotors. Compare Lysholm supercharger and Roots compressor
Abbreviation for Light Off Catalyst


Local cell
A galvanic cell resulting from differences in potential between adjacent areas on the surface of a metal immersed in an electrolyte
Localized controllers
Independent energy control device located near the system it is controlling.
Localized corrosion
Rusting occurring at one part of a metal surface at a much higher rate than over the rest of the surface, e.g., Pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion. The opposite is Uniform corrosion
Local yokel
Trucker slang for city police officer as in ‘That town up ahead is crawling with local yokels.’
Local yokel with a customer
Trucker slang for city police officer with someone pulled over as in ‘You’ve got a local yokel with a customer on your side.’
Locating dowel


Locating lug
A projection or pin for holding a part in a specific position. All engine bearings have some means of ensuring that they will not shift or move in the housing bore once installed. Most bearings use a locating lug, which is simply a small projection or pin that fits into a recess in the housing bore
Locating pin
A projection or lug for holding a part in a specific position.

Locating spring
A steel wire clip in disc brakes that secures the cylinder in a floating frame or caliper frame. Compare Spreader spring
Location Audit
Routine audit of location records to ensure that records are compatible with actual placement of product within the warehouse.
Locator System
Locator systems allow for more effective inventory-tracking. Product can be stored in a way that makes sense for the warehouse, such as high demand product in more accessible locations. Locator systems assist in better accuracy with inventory tracking and control as well because it is all computerized.
  1. A fastening device which closes and opens by the use of a key.
  2. A steering term describing the amount by which the wheels of a vehicle are able to turn.
  3. An obstruction such as a Air lock or Vapor lock.
  4. To close with a key.
  5. To fix or become fixed in a certain position such as ‘the seat belts locked when the brakes were applied suddenly but so did the wheels and the car went into a skid.’
  6. A gear train term indicating to interlock or couple.
Lockable differential
A Limited-slip differential
Lockable wheel
A wheel that can be secured to the hub with a lock
Lock angle
Lock brake system
Lock buster
Lock puller
Lock cylinder
A cylinder in the middle of a cylinder lock that is prevented from turning (locked) by a number of pins (typically five) which penetrate down through the wall of the cylinder. The cylinder is turned by inserting a key which pushes the spilt pins up to varying heights so that the edge of the cylinder engages with the gap between the two sections of each pin allowing the cylinder to turn
Lock de-icer
A fluid which is inserted into the key-hole to melt the ice which has bound the tumblers in a door lock.

Locked-rotor current
Steady-state current taken from the line with the rotor at standstill. Steady-state current means the current does not vary in intensity, but remains constant
Locked-rotor torque
The minimum torque that an electric motor will develop at rest for all angular positions of the rotor
Lock facing
The surface of a door to which the lock is attached
Locking bar clamp
Locking clamp with sliding jaw providing extended clamping capabilities
Locking clamp
Locking pliers with specially shaped jaws for vice work and intricate clamping jobs. Locking clamps include, for example, vice grip C-clamps, vice grip pipe clamps, locking bar clamps, welding clamps, and sheet metal clamps
Locking differential
A differential with the ability for locking together the two half shafts, thus putting the differential out of action and greatly improving traction. In a non-locking differential if one wheel was stuck in snow and spinning, the other wheel would be stationary even if it were on dry ground. In a locked differential, both wheels would turn the same amount. Since the dry-ground wheel had traction, it would be able to pull the vehicle out even though the other wheel had no traction.
Locking disc
Locking hub
Locking lug bolt
An anti-theft wheel lug bolt which requires a special wrench to remove it
Locking lug nut
An anti-theft wheel lug nut which requires a special wrench to remove it
Locking mechanism
A device which locks the reel of a seat belt when the forward acceleration of the occupant exceeds a certain value
Locking pliers
A type of pliers with locking jaws that can be used as pliers, wrench, clamp, or small vice. Closing the handles locks the jaws into position. The jaws are released by pulling a special release lever. Locking pliers with specially shaped jaws for vice work and intricate clamping jobs are called Locking clamps

Locking reel
A device which locks the reel of a seat belt when the forward acceleration of the occupant exceeds a certain value
Locking synchromesh
A common synchromesh mechanism in which the synchromesh pressure is proportional to the gearchange force, thus preventing overriding of the synchromesh action due to hasty operation of the lever; the gear and gearchange sleeve are prevented from engaging until rotational speeds are synchronized
Lock nut
A nut which has a special means for gripping a threaded bolt or screw to prevent or resist the nut from backing out


A nut used in conjunction with a washer or a second nut to lock a mechanism in place, such as the nut found at the upper end of a Headset and in front of the calipers on many caliper brakes.

Lockout ignition Time
The period of time between initiation of gas flow and the action to shut off the gas flow in the event of failure to establish proof of the supervised ignition source or the supervised main burner flame. Reinitiating the lighting sequence requires a manual operation.
Lock-out switch
Lock picker set
A set of special tools designed for opening locked cars, especially used by professional Locksmiths
Lock pillar


Lock pin

Lock pinLock pin

A pin that is secured with a large loop that surrounds a pipe.

Lock puller
A special door lock picker; attached to the outside of a car door lock, the lock puller rips out the entire lock cylinder
  1. The notched ring that fits on the left side of a bottom bracket of a bicycle and prevents the adjustable cup from turning.
  2. A metal ring which snaps into the rim gutter, holding the side ring in place.
Lock ring pliers
Tool for removing and installing heavy-duty circlips, used e.g., on brakes, transmissions, pedal shafts, and clutch shafts
A person who can re-key a lock and work on keys and locks.
Lock striker


Brand name for a type of liquid which is applied to the threads of a bolt and/or nut to secure them to various degrees of strength.
A steering designation which describes the distance created by the steering wheel when it is fully to the left and then moved fully to the right.
  1. The moment when a tire begins to Skid during braking. A tire’s maximum braking force occurs when it is on the verge of lockup. Ideally all four tires should approach lockup simultaneously to give a vehicle the best braking. Because this ideal is hard to create in the real world, one end tends to lock up before the other. Front-wheel lockup is inherently more stable than rear-wheel lockup. Anti-lock brakes provide the best type of braking because it rapidly releases pressure on the brakes to prevent lockup.
  2. A condition where the wheel and tire is prevented from rotating. Braking power overcomes the traction of the tires and skidding occurs.
Lock-up clutch
Automatically engaged clutch in a lock-up torque converter which prevents slipping losses.

Lockup differential
A differential whose two outputs can be locked together, eliminating any differential action but maximizing traction under slippery conditions.
Lockup torque converter
A Torque converter fitted with a lockup clutch that can be engaged to eliminate the slip between the torque converter’s input and output, thereby improving fuel efficiency and performance because it is now in direct drive mode
Lock-up torque converter
Torque converter in which the pump can be mechanically locked to the turbine, eliminating any loss through the fluid because it is now in direct drive mode
There are several types of lockwashers which are designed to be placed between a flat washer and the securing nut in order to keep the nut from backing out or loosening. They include split ring lock washer, external tooth lock washer, internal tooth lock washer, and combination tooth lock washer.

A vehicle brand of which all left hand drive models 48 from 1914 and all model 90, 1927-29 Model 8-80, and 1929 Model 8-88 are classic cars.
The engine that pulls the train.

Locut nut
A fastener used to enable sheet metal screws to be used for relatively large holes in panels


A workman in the mold loft, who lays down ship lines and makes templates.
A record book carried by truck drivers in which they enter their hours of service and duty status for each 24-hour period. Required in interstate commercial trucking by the government Department of Transportation.
Log deck landing
A place in or near the forest where logs are gathered for further processing or transport.
Logging Trailers
Some pole trailers consist of a set of axles with a cradle to hold logs and a pole attached to the rear of a power unit. Others are skeletally framed. Some have double decks. Most will have cradle-like features called BUNKS to hold the logs in place.
Logic controller
A part of the wheel slip brake control system which interprets input signals from the sensor(s) and transmits the controlling output signals to the modulator(s).
The processes and services associated with planning and implementing flow of storage and shipments in a 3rd Party operation required to meet the customers’ needs in an efficient manner. See Reverse Logistics.
Logistics management
That part of the Supply Chain Management process that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customers’ requirements. These are the boundaries and relationships of Logistics Management adopted by the Council of Logistics Management.
Log manifold
A special intake manifold generally designed to accept four or more carburetors. Each side has bases for the carburetors set on a pipe-like log area.
Logs cargo
Truck cargo including processed wood, like 2×4’s, plywood, pulpwood, firewood, and new pallets, fresh from the factory.
Lok Thread
Long and short arm suspension
A Suspension system using an upper and lower control arm. The upper arm is shorter than the lower. This is done so as to allow the wheel to deflect in a vertical direction with a minimum change in Camber.
Long arm suspension
Long block
A long block consists of the Short block plus the oil pump and sump, cylinder head(s), camshaft(s) as well as the complete valve train. The opposite is short block
Long block engine
An engine with a relatively long crankshaft. The opposite is Short block engine. Also compare big-block engine. Normally, the term long block engine means a 6-cylinder in-line engine which has a longer block than a 4-cylinder or V-8 engine
Long Combination Vehicle
(LCV) In general, vehicles longer than a standard doubles rig (tractor and two 28-foot semitrailers). Examples of LCVs which are permitted in some U.S. western states and eastern toll roads Twin 48-foot trailers; triple 28-foot trailers.
Longer Combination Vehicle
(LCV) A tractor pulling two or more semitrailers on an interstate roadway weighing more than 80,000 lbs., or a doubles rig with either trailer greater than 28.5 feet in length.
The main side member
Abbreviation for Long Term Fuel Trim
A long distance which a trucker drives
  1. Lengthways. The opposite is lateral
  2. A shell, deck, or bulkhead stiffener running fore and aft.
Longitudinal Articulation Angle
A situation where wheels run within rigid casings without joints to allow vertical hinging as with independent suspension. In an off-road vehicle rigid axles have the advantage of maintaining maximum under-axle ground clearance at all times and always keeping the tire tread flat on the ground.
Longitudinal articulation coefficient
(CLA) single number that conveys the off-road, ‘twisty ground’ potential of an off-road vehicle. A given max wheel movement enhances this capability more on a short wheelbase than on a long wheelbase vehicle. (CLA) is a non-dimensional parameter, provisionally coined, (higher values mean better articulation) that takes account of both wheel movement and wheelbase; it relates to the angle between the ground and a line joining the front and rear hubs (or tire periphery) when one wheel is on full bump and the other fully.
Longitudinal engine
A traditional engine layout used on most RWD vehicles with the cylinders lying lengthways from the front to the back. Also called North-south layout. The opposite is Transverse engine
Longitudinal girder
Longitudinal member
Longitudinal tire clearance
The distance between the tread and the closest point forward or rearward, reduced by increase in tread depth and rearward movement of the axle under load (1/3 of the distance between shackle pin centers).
Longitudinal leaf spring
A Leaf spring that is mounted so that it is parallel to the length of the vehicle.
Fore-and-aft structural shape or plate members attached to the underside of decks, flats, or to the inner bottom, or on the inboard side of the shell plating.
Long-nose pliers
Pliers with half round and tapered jaws, often with a wire cutter and used for electrical work. Also called Snipe-nose pliers or Needle-nose pliers
Long-nose self-grip pliers
Locking pliers with extra long reach jaws
Long-reach C-clamp
Self-grip locking clamp with extra long C-shaped jaws
Long stroke engine
An engine where the length of the piston stroke is greater than the diameter of the bore of a cylinder. A relatively long stroke produces higher low-end torque at the cost of increased piston speeds and reduced revving ability. The opposite is Short stroke engine
Long Term Fuel Trim
Refers to much more gradual adjustments to the fuel calibration schedule than short-term trim adjustments. Long term adjustments compensate for vehicle differences and gradual changes that occur over time.
Long ton
2240 pounds (1016 kilograms). Also called gross ton.
Long travel rear suspension
Suspension used on competition dirt motorcycles to provide additional travel beyond stock.
Look compatible
A type of bicycle shoe which has three holes drilled into the sole in a triangular pattern to fit Look clipless pedals.
A harness covering. Older vehicles used woven-cloth loom; most modern vehicles use a corrugated-plastic loom or split loom

Loom tape
A non-adhesive tape used as a harness wrap. Adhesive-type tapes, including electrical tapes, are not recommended for wrapping harnesses. Often a piece of shrink wrap is used at tape ends to keep the tape from unraveling
  1. Short for Engine Operating Loop Status. Open is cold fueling, Closed is fueling by HO2S and fuel trims
  2. Road of limited length forming a loop, having no other intersecting road, and functioning mainly as direct access to abutting properties. A loop may be designated for one-way or two-way traffic.
Loop circuitry
Loop detectors
Magnetic traffic detectors imbedded into the roadway in a circular fashion. They detect and inform the signal controller of traffic approaching an intersection.
Loop flow
The movement of electric power from generator to load by dividing along multiple parallel paths; it especially refers to power flow along an unintended path that loops away from the most direct geographic path or contract path.
Loop frame
Early motorcycle frame design in which the downtube curves underneath the engine cases to become the seat post
Loop Mode
Loop scavenging
A method of scavenging used on two-stroke motorcycle engines. The entering gas streams travel across the piston, up the far side of the barrel and curl over and down to complete the scavenging process; loop scavenging is sometimes used to refer specifically to a special variant of this type of scavenging Schnürle scavenging
Loop system
  1. Not tight.
  2. A colloquial term for oversteer.
  3. Product remainder in a specific location or layer
Loose ball bearings
Bearings inside a component that are not held in a metal or plastic retainer (cage)
To make something less tight; to slacken
Action of the engine when the mixture of gasoline and air to the carburetor is too lean.
Abbreviation for LOng RAnge Navigation. A satellite navigation system commonly used by ships and naval vessels to precisely locate their position while at sea.
A British term for Truck.
Abbreviation for limited operation strategy
Loss leaders
Products whose prices are cut with the idea that they will attract customers to the store.
Lost-core technique
A method of producing thermoplastic inlet manifolds
Lost-foam casting
A casting method using foamed plastic cores, giving the surface of the castings the appearance of styrofoam; used for engine blocks
Lost-foam casting process
A casting method using foamed plastic cores, giving the surface of the castings the appearance of styrofoam; used for engine blocks
Loss Monitor
Lost motion
Motion between a driving part and a driven part which does not move the driven part.


A group of products with the same run date or manufacturing date.

Lot Number
Identification number assigned to specific product for tracking purposes that is usually tied to a date or a production run.
Lot Number Traceability
The ability to trace items through their lot number. This is helpful when a specific product is needed or information about a specific product is required.
Lot Stencil
LotusClick image for books on

A vehicle brand of which the 1958-63 Elite models are milestone cars.

Loud pedal
A colloquial term for Accelerator pedal
  1. The ventilation slots such as sometimes found in the hood of an automobile or in the instrument panel. They let air come into the engine compartment to cool the engine or into the passenger compartment. Sometimes they are merely decorative with no cooling function.
  2. A slit or narrow opening to let air, light or water in or out. Some louvers are hinged and adjustable.
Canadian and European spelling for Louver
(L) A driving gear ratio in automatic transmissions for climbing hills (to prevent Lugging or for going down steep hills so that it acts as a compression brake.

Low-bake booth
A closed section in painting lines in a paint shop, in which coats of paint are dried at low temperatures
Low-bake equipment
Equipment for drying coats of paint at low temperatures
Low-bake paint
Respray paint baked at 80°C, giving a high-quality finish but requiring suitable low-bake spray booths/ovens
A car sales practice of stating a very low price for a new car to a customer who is known or expected to be comparison shopping or calling over the phone. When the customer finds that other dealers cannot match this price, he will return to the original dealer, only to be told that the price was a mistake or the price of a lower level vehicle; many customers will then accept a new, higher price because they are tired of shopping around or unwilling to lose face by going back to the dealers that could not match the lowball price. Compare Highball.
Low battery
A battery with less than acceptable voltage and should be charged or replaced.
Low beam
The outboard headlights in a four-light system or the main lights in a two-light system. The low beam is used for most applications of night driving. For those cars without day-time running lights, the low beam should be turned on. In fog and heavy snow, the low beam can provide more light on the road because the High beam reflects light back to the driver. The British term is dipped beam.
Low bed
A low platform trailer for heavy equipment hauling, usually on 15′ diameter tires. Also called Low boy.
Low box
Status of the transmission when the transfer gearbox lever is in the low position – for difficult off-road conditions demanding greater traction or low speed control.
Low boy
  1. A low platform trailer for heavy equipment hauling, usually on 15′ diameter tires. Also called Low bed.
  2. An open flat-bed trailer with a deck height very low to the ground, used to haul construction equipment or bulky or heavy loads.
  3. Gooseneck flatbeds slung very low to the ground. Often the gooseneck is detachable so that equipment can be loaded from the front. Sometimes ramps are at the rear. Typically about 12′ off the ground.
Low brake pedal
A condition where the brake pedal approaches too close to the Floorboard before actuating the brakes.
Low BTU gas
A fuel gas with a heating value between 90 and 200 BTU per cubic foot.
Low-carbon steel
Steel containing 0.03 to 0.3 per cent carbon (typically 0.2%). Used for machine screws, wood screws, etc., and similar products without critical strength requirements. It cannot be heat treated for greater strength. Sometimes called Mild Steel. The tensile strength is around 54M psi.
Low carbon steel
Low Crown Dolly
A curved block of cast iron for bending slight contours. It is used with a bumping hammer to reshape slight contours.


Low crown panel
The predominant shape of modem body panels, e.g., on most side panels such as door skins. The opposite is High crown panel


Low-density polyethylene
(LDPE) a relatively soft, flexible polyethylene, used mainly for plastic film and sheet
Low-drag caliper
A caliper designed to reduce pad drag on the rotor
Low E glass
Low-emission glass reflects up to 90% of long-wave radiation, which is heat, but lets in short-wave radiation, which is light. Windows are glazed with a coating that bonds a microscopic, transparent, metallic substance to the inside surface of the double-pane or triple-pane windows.
A condition of a vehicle which releases relatively few pollutants into the environment. Compare Zero-emission vehicle. In some countries tax relief is available for low-emission cars
Low-Emission Vehicle
(LEV) A vehicle meeting either the US Federal government EPA’s CFV LEV standards or California’s CARB’s LEV standards. LEVs produce fewer emissions than TLEVs.

Low-Emission Vehicle Program
Low Emission Vehicle Standards
(LEV) State and federal governments set standards for automakers developing vehicles that will produce emission. Each state determines its own levels as does the federal government. California and New York have some of the most stringent laws. Once the requirements are met for a specific vehicle, the automaker may call that car or truck a Low Emission Vehicle.

Lower A-arm


Lower back panel
The body sheet metal between the trunk lid and the rear bumper
Lower bending die
A lower tool insert of the press brake
Lower dead center

The process of lowering the chassis of a car, usually as part of a customized design.
Lower end
Portion of an engine from the cylinder base downward including connecting rods.
Lower explosive limit
(LEL). The lowest concentration of a flammable gas/vapor in air in which flame is propagated.
Lower front panel
Lower Heating value
(LHV). The value of the heat of combustion of a fuel as measured by allowing all products of combustion to remain in the gaseous state. This method of measure does not take into account the heat energy put into the vaporization of water: (heat of vaporization).
Lowering kit
A set of springs and other suspension parts to reduce ground clearance.
The bottom part of a motorcycle fairing to protect the rider’s legs from wind and provide a more aerodynamic configuration
Low fuel indicator
A warning light which glows when fuel is getting low and flashes (on some models) when it is very low.
Low gear
The lowest gear in a transmission, usually called first gear.
Low geared
A transmission which has a small drive gear and a large driven gear. On a bicycle, for instance, the chainwheel gear (by the pedals) is the smallest (usually called a Granny gear and the freewheel gear (at the center of the wheel) is the largest. This arrangement gives the slowest speed but the best torque.
Low head pressure
Lower-than-normal-high side pressure caused by a system malfunction
Low-head pump
A pump used for low total heads; in the case of centrifugal pumps the low-pressure pump has a nominal total head not exceeding 80 m
Low Impedance Injectors
Fuel injectors that are designed to run at a much lower current than would be supplied by a direct 12 volt connection. They require a special signal that is initially at full current (4-6 amps, a.k.a. ‘peak current’) for about 1.0-1.5 ms, but then drops down to about 1 amp (‘hold current’) for the rest of the opening pulse. The resistance of a low-impedance injector is typically 1-3 ohms. Also called low-Z.
A truck for heavy loads with a low-level loading platform and often an extension ramp or lift-operated tailgate which can be lowered to street level
Low-maintenance battery
A battery that rarely requires topping-up. Compare Maintenance-free battery
Low oil sensor
Low oil warning light
Low pedal
  1. A condition where excessive clearance at some point in braking system causes full pedal movement for application of brakes
  2. The condition in which the brake pedal must travel very far or very close to the floor
Low pivot swing axle
A rear axle setup that attaches the Differential housing to the frame via a pivot mount. A conventional type of Housing and axle extend from the differential to one wheel. The other side of the differential is connected to the other driving wheel by a housing and axle that is pivoted at a point in line with the differential to frame pivot point.
Low-pressure control
Cycling device connected to low-pressure side of system.
Low-pressure cut-out
A device which protects the air conditioning system by switching the compressor off when a pressure loss occurs
Low-pressure cut-out switch
A device that disengages the compressor clutch when the system pressure drops below a predetermined level
Low-pressure foaming
A process in which plastics are foamed under low pressure (1-5 Bar). The opposite is High-pressure foaming
Low-pressure gauge
Instrument for measuring pressures in range of 10 kPa to 350 kPa.
Low pressure indicator
A unit or combination of units which provides a visible or audible warning signal whenever the system pressure is below a predetermined value.
Low-pressure pump
A pump used for low total heads; in the case of centrifugal pumps the low-pressure pump has a nominal total head not exceeding 80 m
Low pressure safety cutout
Motor protection device that senses low-side pressure. Control is wired in series with the motor and will shut off during periods of excessively low suction pressure.
Low-pressure sodium lamp
A type of lamp that produces light from sodium gas contained in a bulb operating at a partial pressure of 0.13 to 1.3 Pascal. The yellow light and large size make them applicable to lighting streets and parking lots.
Low-pressure Steam
Low-pressure Steam Boiler
Low pressure tire
A tire with a large cross-section for operation at lower pressure. Increased air capacity permits lower pressure. ATV tires, for example, have only 3 or 4 psi.
Low profile
A tire with a low aspect ratio of a tire (i.e., the section height is smaller than section width).
Low-profile air cleaner
A circular, flat, chrome-plated air cleaner, mounted on top of the carburetor
Low-profile tire
A tire with a wide tread but a low height. A tire with a height that is 70% or less of its width would be described as low-profile, as opposed to an average tire of 80%
Low Range Gearbox
Low Range Transmission
Low ratio
A condition of the transmission when transfer gearbox lever is in the low position.
Low-refrigerant protection system
A system which interrupts the electrical current to the compressor clutch in the event of refrigerant loss. A typical exhaust is the GM superheat switch and thermal limiter low side suction side — the low pressure part of the system between the expansion valve outlet and the compressor inlet
A customized car which is extremely lowered through body and suspension modifications so that it rides as low to the ground as possible. Sometimes the suspension has adjustable hydraulic lifts to raise or lower the car. Lowriders are very often classic cars from the 1950s which rode low to begin with, although large numbers of 1940s and 1960s cars are also modified and to a lesser degree newer vehicles also. The 1964 Chevy Impala hardtop or convertible is one of the most popular Lowriders, and to a lesser extent other 1958-1964 Impalas.
Low side
  1. An air conditioning term describing the side between the expansion valve or orifice tube and the compressor; includes the evaporator — called the low pressure portion
  2. The low pressure part of the system between the expansion valve outlet and the compressor inlet. Also called suction side.
  3. That portion of a refrigerating system which is below evaporating pressure.
Low-side Float
Low-side float flooded system
Refrigerating system which has a low-side float refrigerant control.
Low-side float valve
Refrigerant control valve operated by level of liquid refrigerant in low-pressure side of system.
Low side gauge
A gauge that can indicate both pressure and vacuum. Also called a Compound gauge
Low-side pressure
Pressure in cooling side of refrigerating cycle.
Low-side pressure control
Device used to keep low-side evaporating pressure from dropping below certain pressure.
Low-side pressure limiter
Motor protection device that senses low-side pressure.

Low-side service valve
A device, located on the suction or low side of the compressor, at which low side pressure can be checked and other service operations can be performed
Low speed
Gearing provided in an automobile which causes greater number of revolutions of engine as compared to driving wheel
Low speed circuit
Low-speed circuit
Low speed traction control
Low-speed traction control
A system that helps prevent front-wheel spin on slippery or gravel surfaces during acceleration at speeds up to 40 kph (25 mph).
Low spot
An indentation on a panel surface
Low-suction pressure
Condition of lower than normal high side pressure caused by system malfunction
Low sulfur diesel fuel
(LSD) Diesel fuel containing more than 15 but less than 500 parts per million: (ppm) sulfur.
Low temperature activity
A description of the ability of a catalytic converter to purify exhaust gases in the warm-up phase following a cold start. This phase is included in most of the current exhaust emission test procedures, as CO and HC concentrations are particularly high when engines are operated below normal operating temperatures
Low temperature collectors
Metallic or nonmetallic collectors that generally operate at temperatures below 43°C and use pumped liquid or air as the heat transfer medium. They usually contain no glazing and no insulation, and they are often made of plastic or rubber, although some are made of metal.
Low temperature fouling
Low temperature phosphating
Phosphating at temperatures around 20° C
Low Temperatures
Low tension lead
Low tension leads
The wiring in the ignition system that is distinguished from the high tension wiring. The low tension leads carry only 6 or 12 volts. Includes the battery cables, the Coil connections (but not the high tension wire going to the distributor), the wiring to the Ignition switch, and the non-high tension wires going to the distributor.
low tire pressure warning
An electronic system that detects a low tire pressure on a vehicle. Also called a Tire pressure monitor.
Low voltage circuit
Low-Voltage Electric Circuit
A circuit at voltages from 31 to 600 volts inclusive.
Low zinc technology
A technology used in present-day Phosphating processes. Normal zinc phosphating baths used as pre-treatment for painting contain approximately 2-4 grams-per-litre (g/l) zinc and approx. 5-10 grams-per-litre (g/l) phosphorus pentoxide. In low-zinc baths, the corresponding values amount to approx. 0.4-1.7 g/l zinc and 12-16 g/l phosphorus pentoxide
A car chassis which, as the result of an accident, no longer holds its true shape but is rather pushed into the shape of a rhombus or diamond
Abbreviation for the distance from the back of a truck’s cab to the end of its frame. Also CF or CE are used for the same distance.
LP fuel
Liquefied petroleum used as a fuel gas.
Abbreviation for liquefied petroleum gas or bottled gas or a mixture of Butane and Propane. In Canada, propane is the recognized term, not LPG as used in the U.S.A. VolatilePetroleum gases are compressed to a liquid form. It must be kept under pressure or at a low temperature to keep it in a liquid form. It is generally less expensive than gasoline yet has high octane. It also does not create as much carbon deposit in the engine or dilute engine oil as gasoline does thus reducing the need to change spark plugs and other components as frequently. However, if not serviced and maintained properly, it can result in leakage and possible explosion. Most underground parking facilities will not accept Propane powered vehicles.
LP Gas-Air Mixture
Liquefied petroleum gases distributed at relatively low pressures and normal atmospheric temperatures which have been diluted with air to produce desired heating value and utilization characteristics.
Abbreviation for Lumens/Watt–A measure of the efficacy: (efficiency) of lamps. It indicates the amount of light: (lumens) emitted by the lamp for each unit of electrical power: (Watts) used.


Abbreviation for Liquefied refinery gases

Abbreviation for Low sulfur diesel fuel
L-section ring
A special piston ring characterized by its L-shaped cross-section. It is used mostly in high-performance two-stroke engines. The L-section ring allows combustion gas to penetrate behind its vertical section and thus uses the gas pressure to increase the pressure of the ring against the cylinder wall
Abbreviation for Load Sensing Proportioning Valve
Abbreviation for Linear Shift Solenoid
Long tons (2,240 lb.).
LT circuit
An abbreviation for Limited
Abbreviation for Long Term Fuel Trim Fueling based on computed adjustments over time to allow for aging sensors
Abbreviation for Less-Than-Truckload — a quantity of freight less than that required for the application of a truckload rate; usually less than 10,000 pounds. Compare TL. See Regional LTL.
LTL Carrier
A trucking company that consolidates less-than-truckload cargo for multiple destinations on one vehicle. Compare TL Carrier
Abbreviation for Low Coolant Temperature Switch
L-twin engine
A V-twin engine with its cylinders splayed apart at a 90° angle, which creates a smoother-running engine. these engines can either be placed transversely (crosswise), or longitudinally (lengthwise) in the motorcycle frame
A colloquial term for Lubrication

Lube grease
A very thick lubricating oil that has a paste-like consistency. Used to lubricate the Steering linkage, the Suspension system, and other moving parts outside the engine.

Lube job
The greasing and lubrication of the Suspension system, the Drive train, and other parts of the vehicle which need it. A Grease gun is applied to Zerk or Grease fittings and the grease is forced into the component. It should be done professionally once or twice a year. It can be done regularly when you change your oil.
Lube oil
Any material, usually of a Petroleum nature such as grease, oil, etc., that is placed between two moving parts in an effort to reduce friction. Lubricant can also protect a part from dirt and moisture.

To cover or treat with a Lubricant.
Lubricate beads
In order to mount a tire on a rim, the bead of the tire is coated with a vegetable base lubricant. In this way, the tire slides on easily. A petroleum base lubricant must never be used.
Lubricated Plug valve
A valve of the plug-and-barrel type that has bearing surfaces designed to be re-lubricated without disassembly of the valve.
Lubricating film
A thin coating of lubricant (oil) which prevents contact between moving parts.
Lubricating oil
A refined crude oil used as a lubricant
Lubricating pressure
The pressure of a lubricating oil
A type of friction reducing agent like oil or grease.

Lubrication film
A coat of lubricant to reduce the friction created when two surfaces move on one another
Lubrication point
A place lubricant is applied
Lubrication pump
A pump used to supply oil to lubricating points, particularly for plain bearings
Lubrication system
The system which stores, cleans, cools, and recirculates oil in an engine to lubricate its moving parts and bearings. It includes the Oil pump, Oil pan or sump, Oil coolers, tubing, Filters, oil passages in the block, and dashboardOil gauge. Checking the level of oil is accomplished with the oil Dipstick.
The capacity to reduce friction.
Lucas Bosch
This system, used in Jaguars and Triumphs, is a Bosch L-Jetronic system licensed for production by Lucas
A model of automobile manufactured by Buick Division of General Motors from 2006-current
  1. To cause the engine to labor by failing to shift to a lower gear when necessary. The British term is labour.
  2. A protrusion on an object.
  3. A sleeve into which bicycle frame tubes are inserted to form a joint.


  4. An external metal sleeve that holds two or more tubes together at the Joints of a frame.
  5. A device mounted on a rotating shaft or component that engages in a recess of a component to be driven.
  6. A solid block of tread on a tire.
Lug bolt
Bolts which secure the wheel to the hub. Also called wheel lug bolt.

Traveling bags or suitcases. In some luxury vehicles, the luggage is shaped to fit the trunk of the car.
Luggage carrier
A rack which is bolted on top of the trunk lid for taking luggage or the spare wheel (often seen on old sports cars where space was at a premium). In modern vehicles it is only decorative rather than functional.
Luggage rack
A trunk which fits on the back of a motorcycle behind the rear passenger.
A condition of an engine having difficulty in turning because the transmission is in a higher gear than the road speed requires. The British term is labouring.
Lugging the engine
Letting the rpms fall below the engine’s powerband
Lug nut

Lug nutLug nut

One of several nuts which hold the wheel and tire assembly on the car and are screwed on the studs. The inner face of the lug nut is a tapered (conical) nut to help center the wheel. On modern wheels for passenger cars, lug nuts and corresponding studs are less frequently used than bolts. On commercial vehicles, however, lug nuts are very common. A lug wrench is necessary to remove the nuts. The British term is wheel nut.

Lug Pad
A projection on deck with hole for fastening a block flora lead.
Lug wrench
A wrench used to remove the Lug nuts which secure the wheels to the vehicle. Some are L-shaped while others are X-shaped. They are usually found in the trunk of the car with the Tire jack.
Lumbar support
A feature in an automobile seat which allows the driver or passenger to increase the pressure in the small of the back and thus provide more comfort.
Lumber cargo
Truck content which includes processed wood, like 2×4’s, plywood, pulpwood, firewood, and new pallets, fresh from the factory, but not used empty crates. Wood chips, wood residuals, and bark are solids in bulk.
An empirical measure of the quantity of light. It is based upon the spectral sensitivity of the photosensors in the human eye under high: (daytime) light levels. Photometrically it is the luminous flux emitted with a solid angle: (1 steradian) by a point source having a uniform luminous intensity of 1 candela.
(LPW) A measure of the efficacy: (efficiency) of lamps. It indicates the amount of light: (lumens) emitted by the lamp for each unit of electrical power: (Watts) used.
Chevrolet Lumina BooksClick image for books on
Chevrolet Lumina

A model of small car produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motorsfrom 1990-2001. The Lumina APV and minivan possessed the same name.

Lumina APV
Lumina APVClick image for books on
Lumina APV

A model of small van produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors from 1990 to 1993

A street light.
The luminous intensity of a surface in a given direction per watt of projected area of the surface, in Candela per square metre; not the same as the apparent brightness
Luminous burner
A burner in which secondary air only is depended on for combustion of the gas. Also called Yellow-Flame burner
Luminous Sensitivity
A contracted worker who assists in the loading and unloading process.
Abbreviation for Lock-Up Solenoid
Reflected light; sheen or gloss
British and Canadian spelling of Luster
Abbreviation for Land Use and Transportation Department (DLUT).
LUVClick image for books on

A model of small pickup truck produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors from 1972 to 1979

(L) Although the word means luxury, on its own it is often used to denote a rather basic model. Compare CL and GL.

Luxury car
A well-appointed, well-equipped, well-designed and constructed vehicle varying in size from a compact to a large sedan.


Abbreviation for Load Variable

Abbreviation for Long Wheel Base
Abbreviation for light water reactor
A man-made fiber developed by DuPont(TM) which is able to stretch up to 6 times in length, it is blended with other fibers to create a wide variety of cycling clothing. The fibers that it is blended with will determine whether the garment will be cool or warm, and whether it will wick sweat.
Lynch pin

Lynch pinLynch pin

A fastener made of a cylinder and a large pull ring

Lysholm supercharger
A lobe-type supercharger similar to the Roots compressor, but more efficient and much more expensive